"Peace without Victory"
a proposal made by Woodrow Wilson for the defeated powers not to receive punishment; restated America's commitment to neutral rights
Unlimited Submarine Warfare
Policy enacted by GE declaring they would sink all ships, including America's, in the war zone, thus jerking on their "string," in the Sussex ultimatum
Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a german foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.
Led to Russia withdrawing from WWI due to a communist takeover of their government
War Declaration (April 1917)
Wilson declared war on Germany claiming "it was made in Germany". They initiated war with unlimited sub warfare, mass civilian killings, agents, and the Zimmerman note
"War to End All Wars"/"Make the World Safe for Democracy"
Wilson's public reason for war
Wilson's "Fourteen Points" address
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves
head of the Committee on Public Information 1917 which was formed to "sell the war". It served as propaganda agency proclaiming the govn'ts version of reality and discrediting those who questioned that version.
George M. Cohan's "Over There"
song promoting the war
Espionage Act (1917)
This law, passed after the United States entered WWI, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection.
Sedition Act (1918)
added to Espionage Act to cover "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the American form of government, the Constitution, the flag, or the armed forces.
Eugene V. Debs
Ran for U.S. President five times as a socialist. The last attempt was made while he was serving time in prison for obstructing the draft of World War I.
William ("Big Bill") Haywood
Leader of the Industrial Workers of the World whose goal was to organize all workers into one union to overthrow Capitalism
Schenck v. United States (1919)
A legal case in which it was ruled that government can limit free speech if the speech provokes a "clear and present danger" of substantive evils.
War Industries Board (Bernard Baruch)
Managed the transition of the US from a consumer economy to a war economy.
"Work or fight" rule
an option for all men that allowed them to either go to war or work in the factory
National War Labor Board
helped resolve labor disputes that might slow down war production.
AF of L
leader supported the War
Industrial workers of the world, most radical group. Under Haywood, envisioned utopian state run by workers. Small group, but accepted blacks, women, and immigrants. Industrial Sabotage, bad working conditions, did not support war
National Woman's Party (Alice Paul)
group opposed to American participation and women participation in the war; demonstrated with marches and hunger strikes. hated "kaiser" Wilson
National American Woman Suffrage Assn.
supported the war, peace and women effort
Nineteenth Amendment (1920)
granted voting rights to women
Food and Drug Administration (Herbert Hoover)
helped to feed soldiers and allies, wheatless wed, meatless tues. voluntary
Backyard gardens; Americans were encouraged to grow their own vegetables to support the war effort
Eighteenth Amendment (1919)
Banned the making, selling, and transporting of alcoholic beverages in the US
Liberty / Victory Loans
fundraisers for war support led by H.H raised 2/3 war cost led to patriotism
nickname for American troops in Europe
Draft Act (1917)
Europe needed an army, seemed patriotic
Bolshevik Revolution (November 1917)
made Russia withdraw from the war, allowed Germany to concentrate its power towards the west border (France)
German spring offensive (1918)
half million join the trenches
French supreme commander of Allied forces
Battle where Americans saw their first serious action in Europe. helped turn back a German offensive on the Marne River in June 1918
Second Battle of the Marne
The first battle that the US participated in overseas. They stopped Germany from taking France, turning point of World War One
St. Michel salient
German dagger in France's flank
Gen. John J. Pershing
the US General that led the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I.
47 day battle whose objective was to cut German rail lines
German surrender (November 11, 1918)
Asked Wilson to draft a treaty based on the Fourteen Points
Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge
Wanted the US to stay neutral in fear of the US being dragged into further conflicts, chairman of the Senate Commitee on Foreign Relations, not chosen to come to Paris (Republican)
He was the Italian representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
David Lloyd George
He was the British representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
He was the French representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
Sen. William Borah ("irreconcilables")
isolationist; disliked league of nations
Versailles Treaty (June 1919)
The compromise after WW1, settled land and freedom disputes. Germany had to take full blame for the war in order for the treaty to pass, among other things. NOT BASED ON FOURTEEN POINTS. The US Senate rejected it.
Wilson's tour and stroke (September 1919)
followed by disapproving senators
Lodge's fourteen "Reservations"
Reserved the power to declare war for congress, made fun of Wilson's fourteen points
Treaty rejection (November 1919 and March 1920)
Wilson influenced Democrats to vote against fourteen reservations
Warren G. Harding
president who called for a return to normalcy following WWI, republican
-Warren G. Harding wins 1920 election
-US never ratifies Treaty of Versailles , never joined League