1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
* 3rd President of the United States. chief drafter of the Declaration of Independence; made the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and sent out the Lewis and Clark Expedition to explore it
American delegate who signed Treaty of Paris; New York lawyer and diplomat who negotiated with Britain and Spain on behalf of the Confederation; he later became the first chief justice of the Supreme Court and negotiated the Jay Treaty
In 1775 George Washington ordered him, the nation's first secreatry of war, to bring the British artillery back to the siege of Boston that was captured at Fort Ticonderoga.
A French diplomat who came to the U.S. 1793 to ask the American government to send money and troops to aid the revolutionaries in the French Revolution. President Washington asked France to recall him after he began recruiting men and arming ships in U.S. ports. However, Washington later relented and allowed him to have U.S. citizenship upon learning that the new French government planned to arrest him.
A General, nicknamed "Mad Anthony". Beat Northwest Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794. After that the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 got the Indians to cede their claims to a vast tract in the Ohio Country.
*America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."
French foreign minister; In 1797, Adams sent a diplomatic commission to France to settle matters about the upset of the Jay Treaty of 1794. The French thought that America was siding with the English THROUGH JAY'S TREATY, which would violate the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. The commission was sent to talk to him about the seizing of American ships by the French. Communication between the commission and Talleyrand existed between three go betweeners (XYZ) because talking to him in person would cost a quarter of a million dollars. Americans soon negotiated and this act subtly started an undeclared war with France.
was the first person to be put to trial for violating the acts on charges of criticizing Federalist president John Adams and disagreeing with Adams' decision to go to war against France. Lyon was sentenced to four months in jail and ordered to pay a $1,000 fine and court costs. While in jail, Lyon won election to the Sixth Congress. In the election of 1800 Matthew Lyon cast the deciding vote for Jefferson after the election went to the House of Representatives because of an electoral tie.
funding at par
Under GW, this meant that the federal government would pay off its debs at face value, plus accumulated interest which at the time had a total of $54 million. This included the federal government TAKING ON STATES' DEBTS and paying for it as a country. HAMILTON'S establishment of this act gave the country much needed unity because it brought the states together under the centralized government. This made paper money essentially useless do to inflation.
way of interpreting the Constitution that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take
Part of Hamilton's economic theory. Stated that the federal government would assume all the states' debts for the American Revolution. This angered states such as Virginia who had already paid off their debts.
powers that congress has that are not stated explicitly in the constitution
a government tax on imports or exports
concerning farms, farmers, or the use of land
a tax on the manufacturing of an item. Helped Hamilton to achieve his theory on a strong central government, supported by the wealthy manufacturers. This tax mainly targeted poor Western front corn farmers (Whiskey). This was used to demonstrate the power of the Federal Government, and sparked the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794.
The idea advanced by Rousseau, Locke, and Jefferson, that government is created by voluntary agreement among the people involved and that revolution is justified if government breaks the compact by exceeding its authority.
The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state's opinion, violates the Constitution.
Bank of the US
established 1791 (with a charter for 20 years) from a bill proposed by Hamilton. Its charter ended 1811 and Congress declined to renew it. The Second Bank of the US was established 1816 (with another 20 year charter) because of the currency problem not having a centralized bank had created. Tightening measures by the bank after a land boom in the West, many westerners believed, cause the Panic of 1819. Many people blamed the Bank of the US. By 1830's Bank= nation's largest financial institution. Biddle President of bank since 1823. * Jackson hated the Bank, and after winning the 1832 elections began to weaken it, by removing the government's deposits from the bank. Biddle began to raise interest taxes, justifying himself by saying that without the government's money, the resources were too little. In the end, Biddle pushed too far, losing even his supporter, and Jackson was victorious. The bank died in 1836, at the end of its charter. 3: 1775-1825
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
the revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
Was made up by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley
Convention of 1800
Agreement which freed America from its alliance with France (Franco-American Treaty of 1778), forgave French $20 million in damages and resulted in Adams' losing a second term as president
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, IN CONTRAST to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
1795 - Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans
Alien and Sedition Acts
These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.
An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
Post-revolution war, British instogate Native American attacks, but "Mad" Anthony Wayne defeats them in Ohio Valley and gets the Greenville treaty, which cedes Native American land in Ohio Valley to U.S.
Referred to as Washington's Farewell Address. Its main points included: America assuming leadership in the Western Hemisphere, developing its own trade, and not entering into permanent alliances with foreign nations, especially with Europe.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that STATES COULD NULLIFY FEDERAL LAWS that the states considered unconstitutional.
one of nations first political parties, led by Thomas Jeffrson and stemming from the anti-federalists, emerged around 1792, gradually became today's Democratic party. The Jeffersonian republicans were pro-French, liberal, and mostly made up of the middle class. They favored a weak central govt., and strong states's rights.
belief that the government can do anything that the constitution does not prohibit
Judiciary Act of 1789
In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.
Treaty of Greenville
Gave America all of Ohio after General Mad Anthony Wayne battled and defeated the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. 1795 Allowed Americans to explore the area with peace of mind that the land belonged to America and added size and very fertile land to America.
Washington's declaration that the U.S. would not take sides after the French Revolution touched off a war between France and a coalition consisting primarily of England, Austria and Prussia. Washington's Proclamation was technically a violation of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778.
1778: France agreed to send troops fearing that the Americans would sign the British agreement allowing them to have limited autonomy. French entered the war against England, which escalated to the Caribbean and colonies in India.