Frye consideration on admissibility of evidence
evidence must be generally accepted
Person who is in charge of the remains and any evidence found on the remains.
What is meant by "chain of custody"?
a record of who was in control of evidence at all times; evidence is sealed and labeled with initials; violations of chain of custody will render evidence inadmissible
Forensic expert who studies bones and skeletal remains. This expert also helps with identification.
What is the issue at hand with Frye and Daubert?
admissability of evidence in the courtroom
What amendment protects you against unreasonable search and seizure?
Distinguish between direct (testamonial) and indirect (circumstantial) evidence.
direct (testamonial) - eyewitness accounts, photos, video surveillance indirect (circumstantial) - the physical or biological evidence left behind at the scene
7s of Crime Scene Investigation
1. Secure the scene. 2. Separate the witnesses. 3. Scan the scene. 4. See to it that the crime scene examiner. 5. Sketch the scene. 6. Search for evidence. 7. Secure the collected evidence.
Who would have similar mitochondrial DNA?
any relatives who received the same egg. Recall each person is made from fertilization of an egg and sperm. Mitochondrial DNA is located in the mitochondria in the cytoplasm of the egg. The contents of the egg are passed down from grandmother to mother and any offspring who received an egg from the same mother
What is the number of loci that are performed on STR typing and sent to the national database?
What is pattern evidence?
evidence produced by direct contact between a person and an object or between two objects; ex. imprints, markings, fractures, deposits
Distinguish between class and individual evidence.
Class evidence - narrows to a group of people Individual evidence - narrows to one person
Who is present at the crime scene?
1. police - first responders 2. crime scene investigators (photographers, 3. medical examiners = coroners 4. detectives 5. specialists
What type of DNA is most likely to be isolated from skeletal remains to determine identity?
Definition of a crime scene
location wherein the evidence of an altercation or crime may be observed or collected; not necessarily where the crime was committed
What is the name of the national fingerprint database?
What is associative evidence?
something that may be associated to a victim or suspect with each other; ex. personal belongings
What type of information can be gleaned from hair evidence?
with follicle - DNA, gender without follicle - race and whether human or animal
What is conditional evidence?
produced by a specific event or account; important in reconstruction
Miranda Rights give what rights to the person to be questioned.
1. Right to remain silent. 2. Right to an attorney.
When is a warrant necessary?
when time and circumstance permit - really always unless under emergency circumstances or to prevent the immediate loss or destruction of evidence; also not necessary if person is under lawful arrest or if consent is given
What are the particular ridge patterns on a fingerprint called?
minutiae (be able to id basic minutiae if given a picture - bifurcations, endings, delta, spur, short ridge)
What is transient evidence?
evidence that is temporary; easily changed or lost; ex. odor, temperature, imprints, indentations in food
What do officers read to a possible suspect before questioning?
What is meant by a primary, seconday, tertiary, quaternary crime scene?
locations where the evidence of a crime may be collected. The scenes refer to the places where the sequence of events took place where evidence may be found.
This expert examines the body fluids collected at autopsy for poisons or drugs.
Daubert considerations on the admissibility of evidence
1. whether technique can be tested 2. whether science has been offered for peer review 3. whether rate of error is acceptable 4. whether the method of issue has widespread acceptance 5. whether the opinion is relevant to the isse
What must one present in order for the judge to grant you a warrant?
This person is responsible for identifying the boundaries of the crime scene, securing the scene, making notes of transient evidence, separating witnesses
Distinguish between patent, latent and plastic impressions.
patent - impression you can see latent - impression you cannot initially see but you can visualize using powders or chemicals plastic - 3D impressions
What is Locard's Principle of Exchange?
whenever who things (people/objects) come in contact, a transfer of evidence will occur
What are the names of the 3 basic fingerprint patterns?
loop, arch and whorl (be able to id these if given a picture)
What is transfer evidence?
produced by contact between person/person/object
What is the name of the national DNA database?
What are the roles of dogs involved in crime investigations?
1. search and rescue dogs (nose in the air) 2. tracking or trailing dogs (nose to the ground) 3. disaster dogs 4. cadaver dogs 5. water specialists