Research methods

22 terms

Hypothesis

A precise, testable statement or prediction about the expected outcome of an investigation.

Null hypothesis prediction

One that states results are due to chance and are not significant in terms of supporting the idea being investigated.

Research hypothesis prediction

One that states that results are not due to chance and that they are significant in terms of supporting the idea being investigated.

One-tailed hypothesis

A directional hypothesis.

Random sampling

Everyone in the entire target population has an equal chance of being selected.

Opportunity sampling

Uses people from target population available at the time.

Systematic sampling

Chooses subjects in a systematic way.

Volunteer sampling

Participants volunteer.

Stratified sampling

Divides target population into groups, people in sample from each group in same proportions as population.

Counterbalancing

Alternating the order in which participants perform in different conditions of an experiment.

Randomisation

Material for each condition in an experiment is presented in a random order, this is also to prevent order effects.

Single-blind design

Participants do not know which condition (experimental or control) they are in.

Double-blind design

Neither the participants nor the experimenter know which condition people are being treated to.

Time sampling

Observations may be made at regular time intervals and coded.

Event sampling

Keep a tally chart of each time a type of behaviour occurs.

Point sampling

Focus on one individual at a time for set period of time.

Quantitative research

Gathers data in numerical form and is concerned with making 'scientific' measurements. Quantitative data analysis uses a barrage of inferential statistical tests.

Qualitative research

Gathers information that is not in numerical form.

Arithmetic mean

All values in a set of data are added together and divided by the number of values (N).

Median

All values are arranged in order, the middle value is the median.

Mode

The most frequent value or score in a set of data.

Range

Simple measure of dispersion- shows the total spread of data.