A precise, testable statement or prediction about the expected outcome of an investigation.
Null hypothesis prediction
One that states results are due to chance and are not significant in terms of supporting the idea being investigated.
Research hypothesis prediction
One that states that results are not due to chance and that they are significant in terms of supporting the idea being investigated.
A directional hypothesis.
Everyone in the entire target population has an equal chance of being selected.
Uses people from target population available at the time.
Chooses subjects in a systematic way.
Divides target population into groups, people in sample from each group in same proportions as population.
Alternating the order in which participants perform in different conditions of an experiment.
Material for each condition in an experiment is presented in a random order, this is also to prevent order effects.
Participants do not know which condition (experimental or control) they are in.
Neither the participants nor the experimenter know which condition people are being treated to.
Observations may be made at regular time intervals and coded.
Keep a tally chart of each time a type of behaviour occurs.
Focus on one individual at a time for set period of time.
Gathers data in numerical form and is concerned with making 'scientific' measurements. Quantitative data analysis uses a barrage of inferential statistical tests.
Gathers information that is not in numerical form.
All values in a set of data are added together and divided by the number of values (N).
All values are arranged in order, the middle value is the median.
The most frequent value or score in a set of data.
Simple measure of dispersion- shows the total spread of data.