de jure segregation
segregation that is imposed by law
de facto segregation
segregation (especially in schools) that happens in fact although not required by law
The first African American player in the major league of baseball. His actions helped to bring about other opportunities for African Americans.
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
Brown vs. Board of Education
Decision saying, segregation in SCHOOLS is a violation of the 14th amendment, 1954
United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1891-1974)
Little Rock Nine
Nine african american students who first integrated Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957.
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
"Letter from a Birmingham Jail"
A letter written by Martin Luther King Jr. after he had been arrested when he took part in a nonviolent march against segregation. He was disappointed more Christians didn't speak out against racism.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
founded by MLK Jr., to fight segregation. passive resistance stressed nonviolence and peaceful confrontation.
A ride made by civil rights workers to desegregate public facilities, such as bus terminals or lunch counters.
Student Non-Violent Coordination Committee
formed to give more focus and force to their efforts
March on Washington
held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally
"I Have a Dream Speech"
Given August 1963 from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
A tactic for delaying or obstructing legislation by making long speeches
Civil Rights Act of 1964
outlawed discrimination in employment on the basis of race, sex, or religion
In 1964, when blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
a law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African-American suffrage
Twenty-fourth Amendment (1964)
It outlawed taxing voters, i.e. poll taxes, at presidential or congressional elections, as an effort to remove barriers to Black voters.
African-American civil rights leader who encouraged violent responses to racial discrimination
the belief that blacks should fight back if attacked. it urged blacks to achieve economic independence by starting and supporting their own business.
a militant Black political party founded in 1965 to end political dominance by Whites