Lancaster Exam

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Anglo Saxon Years

449-1966 AD

Anglo Saxons

Plunders, farmers, craftsmen; Women had some rights; Warrior-oriented society; Pagan customs; Great Mead Hall; strong relationship between Lord and Thane

Anglo Saxon means

Angles' Land- England; Anglish- English

2 Most Important Anglo Saxon citizens

Warrior and poet/scop

The Witan

King's Counsel- Most important men of the community

Cycle of Violence

avenge the deaths of kin

Wyrd

fate/destiny and bravery can overcome fate

Paganism

non-christian religion; polytheistic branch where followers believe in many Gods; focus on nature

Fatalism

belief that every human life is in the hands of fate

432 AD

Saint Patrick Missionary in Ireland

600 AD

Converted from Paganism to Christianity

Saint Augustine

First archbishop of Canterbury

Romans

skilled in warfare; sophisticated

Druids

priests

Earls

ruling warlords

Freeman

lower class- land and commerce

Churls

serfs/slaves

Vikings

dangerous/destructive invaders

Alfred the Great

871-899; brought peace; founded schools; made English the official language; legal code; defended England from the Vikings; Only ruler in England's history to receive the title the great

Edward the Confessor

1042-1066; Last Anglo Saxon ruler; Built Westminster Abbey; Accounts of miracles after death; England's first national saint

Bede the Venerable

Author and scholar; Father of English History; first person to write scholarly and religious works in English; Spread Christianity to the people

Anglo Saxon Literature

recite memorized poems; scops; heroic and elegiac poetry

Scops

recited poems for entertainment

Heroic Poetry

warriors and battles

Elegiac Poetry

sorrowful laments that mourn the death of loved ones or the loss the of past

Battle of Hastings

October 14, 1696- Edward dies with no heir; William the Conqueror comes from Normandy with 7,000 men and 3,000 horses and conquers all of england

Beowulf

epic; translated hundreds of times; unknown author; first piece of literature written in English

Epic

Long heroic poem

Sutton Hoo

1939; Mrs. Pretty was walking around her estate and found artifacts in the hull of a ship; she owned them and donated them to a museum.

Kenning

a compound metaphorical name for something; for example, "whale's home" for the sea.

Caesura

a line divided by an audible pause

Thane

a freeman granted land by the king in return for military service; soldier or knight.

Lyric

expresses intense personal emotions

Elegy

a mournful, a melancholic or plaintive poem, especially a funeral song or a lament for the dead.

Lament

a passionate expression of grief; to mourn

Frauenlied

"woman's song" in German; lamenting for a lost or absent lover.

Riddles

statements, questions or phrases that have a double or veiled meaning, put forth as a puzzle to be solved; careful thinking is required to find the solution to the clues/hints

Alliteration

the repetition of a particular sound in the first syllables of a series of words and/or phrases; "Peter Pepper picked a peck of pickled peppers".

Enjambment

a syntactic or phrasal pause at the END of the line; the thought/phrase is split between lines.

Metaphor

a direct comparison between two unlikely things without using "like" or "as".

Personification

giving non-human thing/object human characteristics.

Beowulf Character

hero of the Geats

Hrothgar

King of the Danes

Grendel

terrifying monster

Grendel's mother

another water monster

Herot

great mead hall

Comitatus

the loyalty between a thane and the king; everyone protects the king at all costs. If a king is killed, the warriors must avenge the death of the king or they can no longer serve as warriors for the next king.

Wergild

"man-price"; the price placed on a human; compensation to the family if a member is murdered.

Ubi Sunt

a verse form in which the poem or its stanzas begin with the Latin words ubi sunt ("where are")

Litotes

is a figure of speech in with an understatement is employed for rhetorical effect when an idea is expressed by a denial of its opposite.

Vaunt

a boastful remark; speech of extravagant self-praise

Simile

an unlikely comparison between two things using like or as.

Exile

separation or banishment from one's native country, region or home.

Wraecca

wretch, unhappy man, stranger and wanderer

Stoicism

enduring both pain and pleasure without fear or longing

Medieval Time Period Years

1066-1485

Medieval Period

old english to middle english; important to be a devout Christian; Code of Chivalry

Code of Chivalry

code for knights; honor, courtesy and valor

Normans

Descendants of Vikings

William of Normandy

(William the Conquerer) claimed that Edward the Confessor promised him the throne before he died; William defeated King Harold for the throne in the Battle of Hastings

Feudalism

exchange of property for personal service; lord granted property and vassal received property.

Baron

title given to nobles

Fief

land granted to Barons

Manors

land given to knights

Pheasants

worked on manors; lowest class

Chivalry

"mounted warrior" in French; Moral code of conduct of feudalism; Revolves around the knight-very prestigious position reserved for upper class; Loyalty valued

Courtly Love

custom among upperclassmen to take on lovers; secret lovers and meetings

Thomas Becket

Archbishop of Canterbury; defied King Henry II; murdered in his cathedral; people would visit his tomb

King John

singed the Magna Carta; no tax to land

Black Deaths

swept the country from 1348-1349 and killed 1/3 of the population

John Wycliffe

challenges Church-religion strayed from its roots and clergymen were too wealthy; translated the Bible into English

War of the Roses

Houses of York (white rose) and Lancaster (red rose); Dispute over who should take the throne (through mother's side)

Henry Tudor

(Lancaster) marries Elizabeth of York to end the war

Vernacular

everyday language of the people

Ballad

folk song that told a story

Secular Lyric Poems

love, nature, spring, summer

Religious Lyric Poems

praising God

The Canterbury Tales

Written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer; 3 day journey from London to Canterbury to the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket; 30 pilgrims (he only completed 22 stories)

Renaissance Time Period Years

1485-1625

Renaissance means

rebirth (began in Italy)

The Age of Exploration

invention of the compass and advances in astronomy

1497

John Cabot reached Newfoundland

Indulgences

remissions of punishment for sins

1517

Martin Luther posts his 95 theses on a Church door in Germany

Henry VIII

married 6 different times because he could not produce a male heir; granted full control of the church so he could get a divorce

The Stuarts

James I becomes king when Elizabeth dies (she died with no heir); Renaissance ends; Jacobean Era-rule of James; Strong supporter of arts

Sonnet Cycle

series of sonnets that fit together to tell a story

Edmund Spencer

The Faerie Queen for Queen Elizabeth

Christopher Marlowe

gifted lyric poet

William Shakespeare

created English, or Shakespearean, sonnet based off the Italian sonnet

Beowulf Setting

Denmark and Geatland; 500 AD; based on Scandinavian history and myths

Three Important Parts of Beowulf

Grendel's domination of Herot Hall; Vengeance of Grendel's mother; Rage of a dragon after a thief has stolen the treasure it was guarding

Court Poet

wrote mainly for nobility

Tabard

the bar where the Pilgrim started their pilgrimage

Prize for telling a good story

free dinner

Punishment for telling a bad story

had to pay for the whole pilgrimage

Satire

vices, follies, abuses and shortcomings are held up to ridicule

Exemplum

a brief moral story

The Tragedy Macbeth

Tribute to King James I; set in Scotland in the 11 Century

Tragic Hero

A person of high rank and quality and because of a fatal weakness, a personal flaw, he becomes involved in a series of events that lead to his eventual downfall and destruction

Blank verse

unrhymed lines of iambic pentameter; 5 beats per line and every other syllable is stressed

Paradox

statement that seems to be contradictory but actually presents a kind of truth

Aside

statement delivered on stage that other characters cannot hear; reveals private thoughts or motivation

Soliloquy

long speech by a character who is alone on stage; reveals private thoughts or feelings to the audience/reader but not to the other characters

Dramatic Irony

contradiction between what a character thinks/says and what the audience knows to be true; the meaning that the character does not understand but the audience does

Atmosphere

mood of feeling; can often be described in one word; done primarily through dialogue in Shakespeare's plays; similar to the tone of a piece

Symbol

word, person, object or action that stands for something beyond itself

Situational Irony

what you think is going to happen does not actually happen

Verbal Irony

when the speaker says one thing and means the opposite

Theme

the central idea, an idea that can usually be expressed in a general statement about life; sometimes it is possible to state the theme in one sentence; it can be directly stated but more commonly it is simply implied

Exposition

main character is introduced, background information needed is supplied, basic conflict is introduced-an incident occurs that drives the story forward, setting is established

Rising Action

conflict is complicated by secondary conflicts-decisive moment for protagonist

Climax

the peak of the story-the turning point-the questionable moment-most action

Falling Action

readers see results of the climax-the "world" of the characters is changed

Denouement

conclusion/resolution/ending-readers get a sense of how the character's life will be from now on-problem is solved or eliminated

Exposition- Act 1

Witches predict the fate of Macbeth and Banquo; Lady Macbeth forces Macbeth to help her plot to kill Duncan so they can become king and queen

Rising Action- Act 2

Duncan is murdered; Guards framed and murdered; Macbeth=King of Scotland; Malcolm and Donalbain run away

Symbols- Act 2

Dagger-evilness, power, self-conscious (imaginary); Blood-sin and guilt, evidence; Water-purification

Climax- Act 3

Banquo is murdered; Fleance lives; Emergence of Banquo's ghost-Macbeth goes insane; Malcolm and Macduff are in England planning a war against Scotland; Lennox is suspicious of Macbeth; Macbeth's marriage falls apart

Falling Action- Act 4

Macbeth sees 3 apparitions; Macduff's family is murdered; Malcolm and Macduff join their armies

Denouement- Act 5

Lady Macbeth kills herself; Macduff kills Macbeth; Malcolm becomes king; 3 apparitions are fulfilled

First Apparition

Armed Head-Beware of the Thane of Fife (Macduff)

Second Apparition

Bloody Child-no man of woman born can harm you

Third Apparition

Child with Crown holding a Tree-you shall not be destroyed until the forest attacks you

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