1)The potential for conflict between Europeans and the indigenous people in North America stemmed in part from different values concerning the:
relationship to the environment.
As a result of the development of agriculture in the Americas, the members of native tribes:
grew in numbers and founded separate societies.
In contrast to the Europeans, most natives of North America believed that land serves as the basis for:
The Pueblo people of the American Southwest, encountered by the Spanish in the 1540s:
used irrigation canals, dams, and hillside terracing to water their arid maize fields.
In Cahokia, the center of a vast Mississippi culture reaching its peak around 1200 C.E., Native Americans:
developed an urban center with at least 20,000 inhabitants
which of the following characteristics of a matrilineal trabe in north america is not accurate
political deliberation and decision-making by females
population growth and cultural development in west africa
depended upon ecological conditions and geography
west africans shared religious beliefs that rejected
none of the above
all of the following factors contributed to the rise of modern europe EXCEPT the
emergence of powerful feudal lords
according to the magna carta presented by members of the english aristocracy to their king in 1215, the:
members of parliament would meet regularly to pass money bills
rather than personal wealth, natives of communal american societies valued
community and personal valor
in contrast to the fate of africans enslaved in the americas, the slaves in west african societies
often did not suffer a permanently servile condition
arab merchants who lived in Ghana:
introduced Ghanaians to arabic ideas about religion and government
at the time of early contact with europeans, africa was a continent marked by
diverse and elaborate cultures
archaeological studies of the mound builders suggest that native american
societies participated in a vast trading network hat linked villages across the continent
the movement toward more intensive and profitable agriculture in the sixteenth century
marked the first step toward industrial development in England
the expansionist impuilse of european monarchs in the latter fifteenth century was
motivated by a desire to bypass Muslim merchants in trade with asia and africa
"european colonicers in north america also found disturbing the matrilineal organization many tribal societies" matrilineal organizations occurs when
family membership is determined by the female, rather than male line
"by te time the spanish arrived in the 1540s, the indigenous Pueblo people were using irrigation canals" indigenous people refers to those who
live naturally in an area
"ushering in a new, more secularage, the Renaissance.. encouraged the freedom of thought..." a selcularage is one that is
worldly rather than spiritual
While Spain began to exert its power on the other side of the Atlantic, the Portuguese:
concentrated on spreading their power to Africa and East Asia.
Spanish and Portuguese explorations of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries:
shifted commercial power from Mediterranean ports to those of the Atlantic.
Protestantism did not gain an early foothold in the Americas because:
)nations most affected by the Reformation entered overseas exploration later than Spain and Portugal
What factor(s) did NOT contribute to the Spanish conquest of the Aztec and Inca empires?
superior numbers and commitment
The population of the Americas dramatically declined following the arrival of Europeans primarily
lack of natural immunity among Native Americans to European diseases.
American exploration changed European diets by introducing Europeans to:
maize and potatoes.
the consequences of sugar production in the New World included:
all of the above
The defeat of the Spanish Armada by England in 1588:
all of the above
England initially became interested in the western Atlantic for
English colonizing ventures in the New World differed from previous Spanish and Portuguese efforts in that English attempts were:
privately organized and financed
A negative image of Native Americans among English settlers:
justified their claim that natives had disqualified themselves as rightful owners of the land.
The least likely destination of European slave traders in the seventeenth century would have been:
The most important factors for increasing the African slave trade was a(n):
need for labor on sugar plantations.
"The countries most affected by the Reformation...." The Reformation was a(n):
religious movement that criticized the Catholic faith.
The organizers of the Jamestown colony were motivated primarily by a desire to:
earn profits by discovering minerals and developing a fur trade with Indians.
The Virginia Company attracted new settlers to its colony after 1609 by:
promising free land at the end of seven years' labor for the company.
The economic salvation for the Virginia colony proved to be the:
cultivation of tobacco
The primary cause for continuing conflicts between English colonists and Native Americans in Virginia was the:
steady encroachment by land-hungry settlers on Indian territories.
Chesapeake colonists of the seventeenth century:
faced a strong possibility of dying from disease.
In response to Bacon's Rebellion, Governor Berkeley of Virginia:
declared Bacon a rebel and ordered him arrested.
Which of the following factors did NOT contribute to the outbreak of Bacon's Rebellion?
colonial mistreatment of the Indians
Life in the southern colonies remained volatile in the late seventeenth century mainly because of a lack of:
The southern transition to black slave labor in the last quarter of the seventeenth century might be explained by the:
all of the above
The Puritans of England:
wished to rid the Church of England of all Catholic beliefs and practices.
Puritans decided to emigrate from England during the 1630s because of:
all of the above
)Unlike the Puritans, the Pilgrims:
separated from the Church of England.
In contrast to Virginia, the colony of Massachusetts Bay thrived almost from the beginning because the early Puritan settlers
came as freemen in families, and possessed a strong work ethic and valuable skills.
By the early seventeenth century, the French:
developed a fur trade in Canada.
The Dutch colony of New Netherland:
became the colony of New York following English takeover in 1664.
In his colony, William Penn intended to:
make an asylum for the persecuted and a refuge from arbitrary state power.
Slavery never became the foundation of the northern colonial work force because:
labor-intensive crops would not grow in colder climates.
The architects of the Carolina colony:
intended to create a hereditary aristocracy of wealthy manor lords.
New Englanders built more private and comfortable houses at an earlier stage than colonists in the Chesapeake because of:
the need of Southerners to invest available capital in labor.
Which of the following factors was most instrumental in securing victory for the New England colonists in King Philip's War?
internal problems for the Indians, such as food shortages, disease, and defections
The root cause of King Philip's War in New England stemmed from the anger of young Wampanoags at the colonists':
attacks on their land base and political sovereignty.
Which of the following elements contributed to the cohesion of Puritan village life in New England?
an unusual stress on literacy and education
Puritan minister Roger Williams supported:
complete separation of church and state.
William Penn believed that the Indians should be:
compensated for their land.
The Pueblo were pushed to the point of revolt when the Spaniards began to:
assault their religion by seizing their kivas.
According to the theory of mercantilism, colonies existed primarily to:
provide foodstuffs and raw materials.
The Navigation Act of 1660:
listed colonial products that could be shipped only to England or to other English colonies.
After 1675, England enacted stricter imperial controls because (of):
the complications of international competition and war.
Governor Edmund Andros of the Dominion of New England antagonized colonists by:
challenging the validity of all land titles.
Leisler's Rebellion in New York City reflected the
resentment of lower-class Dutch residents toward the town's English elite.
The Glorious Revolution of 1688 resulted in:
lasting political changes to several colonies.
The colonial elite tried to foster social and economic stability by the:
maintenance of a highly stratified society.
"The Puritans set about building their utopia...." A utopia is a(n):
ideal of social or political perfection.
New Englanders opted for more of a mixed economy than settlers in the middle or southern colonies because in New England:
availability and productivity of land was limited.
Colonial America in the first half of the eighteenth century experienced:
population growth and economic development.
Compared to her English counterpart, the eighteenth-century northern colonial woman:
enjoyed broader legal and property rights.
The Chesapeake colonies of the early eighteenth century witnessed:
the emergence of a planter gentry as political and social leaders.
By the 1740s, the vast majority of inhabitants along the coast of South Carolina consisted of:
The adoption of slave codes in the English colonies:
restricted the lives of slaves.
Which of the following factors helped temper rebellion and offer comfort to colonial slaves?
religion and family life
The typical master in colonial America wished to convert the slave into a(n):
mindless drudge who obeyed every command.
France's interior empire in North America:
had many settlements that were mixed-race communities.
As a result of extensive contact with European colonizers during the early eighteenth century, Native American tribes of the interior:
altered patterns of tribal life and leadership.
The advent of "modern" life occurred first in the seaboard centers of colonial America, including the transition from a:
barter to a commercial economy.
Colonial merchants of the early eighteenth century:
integrated American producers and consumers in the Atlantic basin trading system.
For urban artisans in colonial America:
a major goal was economic independence.
In contrast to conditions in the English colonies, life in New Spain was characterized by greater:
the social structure of American colonial cities from 1690 to 1770 was influenced by:
an increasing gap between the wealthy and the poor.
According to the entrepreneurial ethos, government would provide for the general welfare by:
promoting individual competition.
All of the following represent theories of Enlightenment thinkers EXCEPT the notion that:
God predetermined the contents of the human mind.
Perhaps the most pressing problem facing clergymen in the early eighteenth century and a cause for the Great Awakening was the:
pervasiveness of religious apathy.
Which of the following might NOT be considered a legacy of the Great Awakening?
The religious revival known as the Great Awakening:
emphasized an emotional rather than intellectual approach to religion.
Royal checks on colonial lawmaking operated imperfectly in the eighteenth century primarily because of the:
time lag in English response to colonial action.
The most important government for colonial New Englanders was the:
According to the Whig ideology, the best defense against corruption and tyranny rested in the:
eternal vigilance by the people.
During the early eighteenth century, colonial assemblies:
gained the "power of the purse."
Unlike members of the English House of Commons, colonial representatives:
were expected to reflect the views of those who had elected them locally.
Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688, England:
tightened imperial controls over her American empire.
As a result of the Molasses Act of 1733:
many of New England's largest merchants and distillers resorted to smuggling.
The underlying cause of the Seven Years' War in America was (the):
English colonial penetration of the Ohio Valley.
The British Proclamation of 1763
ordered colonial governors to reserve lands west of the Appalachian Mountains for Indian nations.
Which of the following provisions was NOT a part of George Grenville's program to raise colonial revenue?
increased taxes on imported French molasses
Colonists protested the Stamp Act in all of the following ways EXCEPT:
a declaration of independence
The Boston Massacre, in which five townspeople were killed by British redcoats:
convinced Governor Hutchinson to order British troops out of town.
Americans objected to the Tea Act of 1773 because it would:
cause smuggled Dutch tea to be undersold.
Even before the Second Continental Congress assembled in May 1775, most colonies had created extralegal, revolutionary governments which:
all of the above
The ideology of revolutionary republicanism:
borrowed ideas from a variety of former Whig and Enlightenment thinkers.
Many Americans viewed English policies after 1763 as:
all of the above
Much of the colonial clergy:
supported the revolutionary movement against English rule.
Discussions at the First Continental Congress were LEAST concerned with:
preparing financially and militarily for war.
During the 1760s and 1770s, urban artisans in America:
used political discontent to demand internal reforms.
The most important revolutionary role for colonial women was:
facilitating the boycott of English goods.
Most colonial farmers of the 1750s and 1760s:
seemed more concerned with local issues than English policies.
Some revolutionary ideas were expressed in the form of broadsides. A broadside is a:
single printed sheet
The Intolerable Acts provided for all of the following EXCEPT the:
individual punishment of participants in the Boston Tea Party
As a result of the Townshend duties of 1767, Parliament:
raised customs duties on American imports of paper, lead, paint, and tea.
Passage of the Declaratory Act by Parliament:
asserted Parliament's power to enact laws for the colonies in "all cases whatsoever."
The turning point of the Seven Years' War in America occurred when:
English Prime Minister William Pitt threw his nation's full military might into the American campaign.