Biology Ch.4&5 Tests

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they use light and glass to magnify an image

How light microscopes work?


How many millimeters are in a centimeter?

Cell theory

The idea that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells defines


Archaea are composed of _____ cells.


What structure is exclusively associated with prokaryotic cells?

Contains the cell's DNA

The nucleoid region of a prokaryotic cell


______cells lack a membrane-enclosed nucleus

Nucleoid region

A bacterial cell's DNA is found in its

Are plants cells

You are told that the cells on a microscope slide are plant, animal, or bacterial. You look at them through a microscope and see cell walls and membrane-bound organelles. You conclude correctly that the cells _________

Nonpolar molecules such as CO2

Plasma membranes are permeable to

contains DNA

The nucleus of a cell


Long fibers of DNA and protein found in the nucleus are called

Chloroplasts and cell walls

Unlike animal cells, plant cells have ____ and ____.


Unlike plant cells, animal cells have _____.

Anchoring junctions

What structure is used by prokaryotes for attaching to surfaces?

To manufacture ribosomal RNA

The function of the nucleolus is ___________

A small cell lived inside a larger cell to the benefit of both cells

What does the endosymbiosis hypothesis propose?

Embedded in an extracellular matrix

Most animal cells are______

Individual proteins and phospholipids that can drift in phospholipid bilayer

The fluid mosaic model describes the plasma membrane as consisting of _________________________

"kinks" in their tails caused by the presence of a double bond between carbons

Membrane phospholipids often have


Most functions of a cell membrane are performed by _______

the plasma membrane allows some substances to enter or leave a cell more easily than others

Plasma membranes are selectively permeable. This means that

easily pass through a membrane's lipid bilayer

Small, nonpolar, hydrohobic molecules such as fatty acids...

Structure and function

All cells are enclosed by a plasma membrane that is similar in ____ and ______.

passive transport

Oxygen crosses a plasma membrane by

Passive transport

Diffusion does not require the cell to expand ATP. Therefore, diffusion is considered a type of

isotonic to its environment

A cell that neither gains nor loses water when it is immersed in a solution is

Transport proteins, down

Facilitated diffusion across a biological membrane requires ____ and moves and substance ______ its concentration gradient

Active transport

Which kind of process can move a solute against its concentration gradient?


Most of a cell's enzymes are

changing the enzyme's three-dimensional shape

Heating inactivates enzymes by

a zinc atom

What substance could be a cofactor?

Vitamin B6

What substance is a coenzyme?

It lowers the activation energy of the reaction.

When an enzyme catalyzes a reaction,


Substrates bind to an enzyme's ______ site

the region of an enzyme that attaches to a substrate

The active site of an enzyme is


The molecules responsible for membrane transport are

the diffusion of water

Osmosis can be defined as

1. Cell is the basic function and structure of organelles
2. Cells come from other cells
3. All things are made up of cells

What are the 3 parts of the cell theory?

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