AP Psychology First Semester Final

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Contains question in units 1, 2, 4, 7, and 9

Humanistic psychologists focused on the importance of

healthy growth potential

The method of introspection was used by Titchener to identify

elements of sensory experience

The inheritance of behavioral characteristics was emphasized by

John Watson

Dr. Karima conducts basic research on the relative effectiveness of massed practice and spaced practice on a person's ability to remember information. Dr. Karima is most likely a _________ psychologist.

Cognitive

Wilhelm Wundt's early experiments were attempts to investigate which area of psychology?

the simplest mental processes

Which area of psychology might be best suited to investigate the following research question: what happens in our brain when we forget details about stressful life events, and how does this process affect behavior?

cognitive neuroscience

A concern with the reasoning processes that contribute to effective problem solving is most characteristic of the _______ perspective.

behavioral

The survival of organisms best suited to a particular environment is known as

natural selection

Functionalism was a school of psychology that focused attention on the

adaptive value of conscious thoughts and emotions

Charles Darwin believed that behaviors, such as emotional expressions associated with human rage, could be explained by natural selection. Which early psychologist would most likely to agree with Darwin's assessment?

William James

The ideas that most directly helped form modern empiricism were proposed by

John Locke and Francis Bacon

Which approach is most directly concerned with assessing the relative impact of both nature and nurture on our psychological traits?

biopsychosocial

Contemporary psychology is best defined as the scientific study of

behavior and mental processes

The cognitive perspective in psychology focuses on how

people encode, process, store, and retrieve information.

In the context of debated regarding the origins of knowledge, Aristotle is to _______ as Plato is to ________.

nurture; nature

Mr.Christian has designed a camera with buttons that are easy to reach and see. Mr.Christian is most likely

engaged in applied research?

Dr. Lipka is involved in an applied research study of customer satisfaction with a newly developed line of facial cosmetics and other beauty aids. Dr.Lipka is most likely a(n) _______ psychologist.

industrial- organizational

Which perspective highlights the reproductive advantages of inherited psychological traits?

evolutionary

The first psychological laboratory was established by

Wilhelm Wundt

Mr. Kay is interested in whether individual differences affect learning. Mr. Kay is most likely a(n) _________ psychologist.

educational

Mrs. Thompson believes that her son has become an excellent student because she consistently uses praise and affection to stimulate his learning efforts. Her belief illustrates a ________ perspective.

behavioral

William James was a prominent American

functionalist

Who would have been most likely to ignore mental processes and to define psychology as "the scientific study of observable behavior"?

John B. Watson

Dr. Wilson attributes the delinquent behaviors of many teens to the pressures associated with being members of street gangs. Her account best illustrates a(n) _______ perspective.

social-cultural

Who was the American philosopher who authored a textbook in 1890 for the emerging discipline of psychology?

William James

The biological perspective in psychology would most likely to emphasize that behavior is influenced by

environmental circumstances?

Dr. Santaniello conducts basic research on how children's moral thinking changes as they grow older. It is most likely that Dr. Santaniello is a(n) ________ psychologist.

developmental

Natassia believes that boys learn to be more aggressive than girls primarily because boys are more frequently exposed to external pressures to fight. Natassia's belief most directly exemplifies the ______ perspective.

behavioral

Which approach is most directly concerned with assessing the relative contributions of heredity and experience to personality development?

biopsychosocial

The early school of psychology known as functionalism was developed by

William James

Akira believes that her son has become a good student because she always praises his learning efforts. Her belief best illustrates a _______ perspective.

behavioral

Clinical psychologist specialize in

providing therapy to troubled people

Which perspective is most relevant to understanding the impact of strokes and brain diseases on memory?

biological

In explaining human behavior, psychoanalysts are likely to focus on ______, whereas humanistic psychologists concentrate on ______.

childhood experiences and unconscious thought processes; current environmental influences on potential

Dr. Mills conducts research on why individuals conform to the behaviors and opinions of others. Which specialty area does his research best represent?

social psychology

Professor Crisman believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference enhanced the survival of our ancestors' genes. This viewpoint best illustrates the __________

evolutionary

Introspection was the basic research tool used by ______ in order to study people's inner sensations and mental images.

Edward Titchener

The specialist most likely to have a medical degree is a(n)

psychiatrist

Which psychologist was the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology after Harvard University declined to give Mary Calkins the Ph.D.?

Margaret Washburn

Wilhelm Wundt's laboratory work involved experimental studies of

reactions to sensory stimulation

Research participants were asked to monitor and report their own immediate sensory reactions to differently colored objects. This research involved techniques known as

introspection

Descartes theory of how our brain controlled our reflexes involved which of the following?

brain fluid and "animal spirits"

Unit 2

the following are questions from unit 2

Random sampling is to _____ as random assignment is to _______.

surveys; experiments

In 1953, H.M. underwent surgery to control his seizures. Doctors removed tissue form the hippocampus. As a result H.M.'s memory was severely impaired. Psychologist studied his memory function until his death in 2008. Which research method did the psychologist utilize in this situation?

case study

Formulating testable hypotheses before conducting research is most directly useful for restraining a thinking error know as

the hindsight bias

A researcher interested in proving a causal relationship between two variables should chose which research method?

correlation

What does the effect size of research findings tell you that statistical significant does not?

the magnitude of the finding

Dr. Donelian wants to reduce his students perception that psychological experiments merely document the obvious. His best strategy would be to ask students to

predict the outcomes of experiments before they are told the actual results.

Dr. DeVries is interested in measuring how practice in problem solving affects this ability. The population of interest is high school seniors, and the sample consists of students who attend an exclusive college preparatory school. Half of the sample receives practice in solving particular types of problems, while the other half does not. Both groups take the same problem-solving test. Which of the following might best explain why Dr. DeVries may bot be able to generalize his findings?

His sample is not representative of the population.

If scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) are normally distributed, with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, what percentage of scores will fall between 85 and 115?

68

When the observed difference between the means of an experimental group and control group are not likely due to chance, researchers conclude that this difference is

statistical significant

To study the effects of noise on worker productivity, researchers have on group of subjects work in a noisy room and a second group work in a quiet room. To ensure that any differences in the productivity of the two groups actually result from the different noise levels to which the groups are exposed, the researchers would use

random assignment

Abdul has volunteered to participate in an experiment evaluating the effectiveness of aspirin. Neither he nor the experimenters know whether the pills he takes during the experiment contain aspirin or are placebos. The investigators are apparently making use of

the double-blind procedure.

American males shake hands in greeting; Japanese men bow. However, people can communicate with a smile. What does this tell us about the role of culture in understanding or psychology?

Culture shaped our behavior, but certain underlying processes guide people everywhere.

Which of the following defines ethical principles that should guide human experimentation

informed consent, protection from harm, confidentiality, debriefing.

A hypothesis is a(n)

testable prediction that gives direction to research.

An experiment was designed to study the potential impact of alcohol consumption on emotional stability. A specification of the procedures used to measure emotional stability illustrates

an operational definition

Which measure of variation is most affected by extreme scores?

mean

In an experiment, researchers manipulate on factor to see its effect on another factor, called the

dependent variable

Knowing the difference between an experimental condition and a control condition is most relevant to understanding the nature of

random sampling

How would a researcher likely respond to the statement, "Science can't really prove anything, because lab experiments are so artificial and not like the real world"?

"Laboratory experiments can establish general principles that generalize to other contexts."

To study the development of relationships, Dr. Rajiv carefully observed and recorded patterns of verbal and nonverbal behaviors among boys and girls in the school yard. Which research method did Dr. Rajiv employ?

naturalistic observation

Professor Amabra was skeptical about the accuracy of recently reported research on sleep deprivation. Which process would best enable her to assess the reliability of these findings?

replication

The distributions of which of the following types of data are most likely to form a normal curve?

years of historical events

To examine assumptions, discern values, evaluate evidence, and assess conclusions is to engage in

critical thinking

When you read a bar graph, it is important for you to

note the range and size of the scale values .

Which of the following is true for those assigned to a control group?

The experimental treatment is absent/

Professional psychological associations require researchers to

obtain informed consent before using any animals as subjects in research

Which of the following statements is most correct about the relationship between correlation and causation?

Correlation indicates the possibility of a casual relationship, but it does not prove causation.

Variation is to central tendency as _______ is to _______.

range; median

Political officials who have not doubt that their own economic and military predictions will come true most clearly demonstrate

overconfidence

In a distribution of test scores, which measure of central tendency would likely be most affected by a couple of extremely high scores?

mean

If a result is statistically significant, this means that the

psychologist accepts a 5 percent likelihood that the result occurred by chance.

Which of the following statistical measures is most helpful for indicating the extent to which high school grades predict college grades?

correlation coefficient

In 1954, the U.S Supreme Court ruled that schools must be desegregated, meaning Black and White children must attend the same schools. In its decision the Court cited the expert testimony of two psychologists, illustrating the negative impact of such separation on Black children. This example illustrates that psychology

can help people understand some of the world's great problems.

Which makes finding statistical significance more likely?

random sampling

Redelmeier and Tversky (1996) followed 18 patients with arthritis for 18 months. Patients were asked to record their pain and joint tenderness, while researchers documented changes in weather. Nearly all patients believed that their condition was associated with weather changes, when the actual correlation was zero. There participants need to be reminded that

we are likely to recall instances that confirm beliefs.

To asses reactions to a proposed tuition hike at her college, Ariana sent a questionnaire to every fifteenth person in the college registrars alphabetical listing of all currently enrolled students. Ariana employed the technique of

random sampling

Professor Woo noticed that the distribution of students scores on her last biology test had an extremely small standard deviation. This indicates that the

students scores tended to be similar to one anothers

A majority or respondents in a national survey agreed that "classroom prayer should not be allowed in public schools". Only 33 percent of responders in a similar survey agreed that "classroom prayer in public schools should be banned." These divergent findings best illustrate the importance of

wording effects

Why is replication important to science?

Repeated research with similar results increases confidence in the reliability of the original findings.

Which of the following is the best definition of illusory correlation?

a perceived but nonexistent correlation

Unit 4

questions to from Unit 4 test

Which process allows more light to reach the periphery of the retina?

dilation of the pupil

According to the gate-control theory, a back massage would most likely reduce your physical aches and pains by causing

activation of nerve fibers in your spinal cord.

Hearing a sequence of sounds of different pitches is to ______ as recognizing the sound sequence as s familiar melody is to ______.

sensation; perception

The semicircular canals are most directly relevant to

the vestibular sense.

After watching a scary television movie, Julie perceived the noise of the wind rattling her front windows as the sounds of a burglar breaking into her house. Her mistaken interpretation best illustrates the influence of

perceptual set

Giulios bag of marbles is twice as heavy as Jims. If it takes 5 extra marbles to make Jim's bag feel heavier, it will take 10 extra to make Giulios bag feel heavier. This best illustrates

Weber's law.

The tendency to hear the steady drip of a leaky faucet as if it were a repeating rhythm of two or more beats best illustrates

perceptual organization

If the just-noticeable difference for a 10-oune weight is 1 ounce, the just noticeable difference for an 80 ounce weight would be _______ ounce(s).

10

A floating sea vessel is to the ocean water as _____ is to ______.

figure; ground

Joe Wilson, age 55, has been told by experts that a hearing aid would restore his lost sense of hearing. It is likely that Joe's hearing loss involves problems within the

inner ear

Damage to the temporal lobe area of the brain essential for facial recognition produces a loss of

perception

Ohio State University pedestrians were most likely to cross streets unsafely if they were talking on a cell phone. This best illustrates the impact of

selective attention

The retina is to the eye as the _______ is to the ear.

eardrum

Intensity is to brightness as wavelength is to

frequency

If an adult develops cataracts, his or her

absolute threshold for light is likely to increase

Which of the following is the correct order of structures light passes through in the eye?

cornea, iris, pupil, lens, retina

The ability to simultaneously process the pitch, loudness, melody, and meaning of a song best illustrates

parallel processing

In experiments, an image is quickly flashed and then replaced by a masking stimulus that inhibits conscious perception of the original image. In these experiments, the researchers are studying the effects of

priming

Because she was listening to the news on the radio, Mrs. Shultz didn't perceive a word her husband was saying. Her experience best illustrates

selective attention

The mechanical vibrations triggered by sound waves are transduced into neural impulses by

hair cells

The fact that fear may increase your sensitivity to an almost imperceptible pain stimulus is of most relevance to

signal detection theory

Although Manuel was sitting right next to his parents, he smelled a skunk minutes before they did. Apparently, Manuel has a lower ______ for skunk odor than his parents.

absolute threshold

The ability to pay attention to only one voice at a time is called

the cocktail party effect

Rebecca was born with cataracts that were not surgically removed until she was three year old. As a result, Rebecca is most likely

to have inadequate neural connections in her visual cortex

The principle of continuity and closure best illustrates the importance of

top-down processing

Who emphasized that the whole may exceed the sum of its parts?

Gestalt Psychologists

The ability to detect whether your body is horizontal or vertical position depends most directly on

the vestibular sense

The biopsychosocial approach to pain is likely to emphasize the importance of both

top-down and bottom-up processing

The local fire department sounds the12 o'clock whistle. The process by which your ears covert the sound waves from the siren into neural impulses is an example of

transduction

A time lag between left and right auditory stimulation is important for accurately

locating sounds

Taste and smell are both what kind of senses?

chemical

Visual information is processed by

bipolar cells before it is processed by rods and cones

Which of the following would play a role in quickly alerting you to a gas leak in your home?

olfactory receptors

Almost half the birds in the yard were brown cardinals and the rest were bright red cardinals, so Jimmy perceived them as two distinct groups of birds. This best illustrates the principle of

similarity

While singing to you on your birthday, your friends leave off the last world to the song. Your tendency to mentally fill in the last word best reflects which of the following Gestalt principles of organization?

closure

The sequentially flashing Christmas tree lights appeared to generate pulsating waves of motion. This best illustrates

the phi phenomenon

Damage to the hammer, anvil, and stirrup is most likely to cause

sensorineural hearing loss

Which of the following is most helpful in perceiving the distance of objects far away from you

monocular cues

An 80-decibel sound is _______ times louder than a 60-decibel sound.

20

Standing in a checkout line at the grocery store, Jerry kept looking at his watch to see the time. In doing so he failed to see a robbery going on in front of him, Jerry most clearly suffered

in attentional blindness

Marge insists that her dreams frequently enable her to perceive and predict future events. Marge is claiming to have the power of

precognition

The volley principle is most directly relevant to our perception of

pitch.

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