seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country
>forces driving _________ are: raw materials, European nationalism, missionary activity, ending slavery, "civilize" others (the white man's burden), industrial revolution, new markets, European racism, social Darwinism
social theory of time: natural selection applying to human society; those who were fittest for survival enjoyed wealth and success and were considered superior to others. Non-Europeans were considered lower because have not made as much scientific and economic porgress. This leads in to the White Man's Burden to bring the European progress to other countries
Berlin Conference (1884-1885)
14 European countries met here to divide up Africa; agreed that anyone could claim land if kept each other notified (reason for riots today because paid little attention to how ethnic tribes were distributed; clumped them together)
Zulu chief that used highly disciplined warriors and good military organization to create a large centralized state (his successors could not keep up with his standards and Zulu later fell to the British in Battle of Ulundi)
Dutch for "farmers"; they were Dutch settlers that gradually took Africans' land and established large farms. ______ a.k.a "Afrikaners."
a.k.a the South African War
>War between British and Boers was the 1st modern "total" war (Dutch wouldn't give in unless gave it all)
>atrocities (terrible deaths) on both sides, but...
>British one (Boer republics became part of Union of South Africa)
Sphere of Influence
area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges
independent but less developed country controlled by private business interests rather than other governments
Europeans governed people in a parental way by providing for their needs but not giving them the rights
>brought in own gov. and did not train local people their gov. methods
policy based on idea that in time, local populations would adopt French culture and become like the French
>schools, businesses, courts patterned after French institutions to help make this happen
>Ethiopia's success of resisting Eur. power due to _________, the emperor of Ethiopia (1189). He successfully played Italians, French, and British against each other, all of whom were striving to bring Ethiopia into their spheres of influence
>meanwhile, built weapons (purchased from France and Russia)
>formed peace treaty with Italy, but miss-communication b/c written in 2 languages. Italians thought Ethiopia was their protectorate; so they came in....Menelik defeated them and stocked more weapons in case anyone else challenged liberty
Maji Maji Rebellion
an uprising between African villagers and Germans insisting to plant cotton as a cash crop for export. The Africans put their faith in a spiritual defense (maji maji) or magic water would turn the Germans' bullets into water
>over 20 ethnic groups fought and lost to the machine-gun post (abour 75,000 resisters dead)
had difficulties trying to fit into modern world
>made attempts (reforms that lead to corruption, inflation, modernizing army, but older servers resisted)
>Ottoman Empire kept losing land and become weak to Europeans and they soon gained control
an interest in or taking of land for its strategic location or products (Ottoman Empire=warm port for Russia, control of trade in Med. Sea, and later when oil found= $$$)
>named after peninsula in Black sea (most of war fought here)
Purpose: Russia wanted a warm weather port and fought the Ottomans
>British and France fought with Ottomans b/c didn't want Russia to gain control (defeated Russia)
>human-made waterway that cut through the Isthmus of Suez (Egypt went ind debt because of construction with French money; Britain paid it off and then occupied Egypt)
viewed as "Lifeline of the Empire" b/c gave Britain easier access to colonies in Asia and Africa
lacked capital to develop own resources; to raise money and gain economic prestige
>needed help from western businesses (but no Persians earning the money, just European and Western powers. Persians= angered (tobacco boycott is an example).
>foreign powers used economic imperialism to gain control of Persia
self-ruling in domestic affairs but remained part of British Empire (which took care of foreign affairs)
>Canada is an example
division of upper and lower Canada temporarily eased tensions.
>royal governor and small group of wealthy British lead both colonies (British had most of power)
> middle-classes of both colonies started to demand political and economic reforms
>in lower colony, French agreed b/c they were under British rule there too
>rebellions broke out in both colonies
>British sent a reform minded statesman, Lord DURHAM, to investigate...
>>2 major reforms: unite upper and lower to form Province of Canada & British immigration should be encouraged
>>led to French becoming part of dominant English culture and colonists in provinces of Canada should be allowed to govern themselves domestically
Polynesian people who had settled in New Zealand around A.D. 800
>culture based on farming, hunting, and fishing
Australia sparsely populated by _______________; the native people.
>longest ongoing culture in world
>nomads that fished, hunted, and gathered food
a place where convicts were sent to serve their sentences
>many European nations used it to prevent overcrowding of their prisons
>Australia was a ________ _________
>occurred in 1840's in Ireland
>one of worst famines in modern history
>Irish peasants depended on potatoes as sole source of food, 1845-1848 a plant fungus ruined nearly all of the potato crop!
>about 1 million people died from starvation and disease out of and 8 million pop.
>many fled to U.S., some went to Britain, Canada, and Australia