2011 projected sales
43 billion (1970) -
604 billion (2011)
growth rate 2010-2011
real growth 2010-2011
how many does foodservice employs?
12.8 million employees, ~10% of all employed
percent of the food dollar
49% of the total food dollar, up from 2% in 1955
types of foodservice establishments
Restaurants (including fast food)
Groupings of Foodservice Establishments (textbook)
Commercial - restaurants
On-site (Non-commercial or institutional) - education, healthcare, employee feeding, etc.
Groupings of Foodservice Establishments (national restaurant association)
Commercial - restaurants, hotels, and some healthcare, education, etc.
Non-commercial - some healthcare, education, etc.
Companies who manage food services for another facility
top food contractors
Compass Group, ARAMARK, Sodexho
why people eat in foodservice
Social Pleasure, Eating Pleasure, Lifestyle Support
home meal replacement
collection of interrelated parts or subsystems unified by design to obtain one or more objectives
implications of a system
Designed to accomplish an objective
Has an established arrangement
Interrelationships exist among parts
'Whole more important than the parts'
dietary= subsystem or system?
Dietary department can be both a system and a subsystem
food service= system or subsystem?
foodservice is an open system
food service systems model
control, input, transformation, output, memory, feedback, environmental factors
Human, physical, or operational resources required to accomplish the objectives of the system
Products and services that result from transforming the input of the system
examples of output
Action or activity used to change inputs to outputs
parts of transformation
functional subsystems, management functions, linking process
purchasing, production, sanitation, and service
planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling
decision-making, communication, and balance
provides guidance for the system
examples of control
Plans - Goals, policies, menu, etc.
Programs - quality assurance
Contracts, laws, regulations
all stored information such as records, inventory, forecasting, personnel records, etc.
Internal factors such as comments from customers, profit, employee morale, etc.
External factors such as technology, changing demographics, innovations, etc.
characteristics of systems
Interdependency, Interface, Equifinality
examples of input
Human - labor and skills
Materials - food and supplies
Facilities - space and equipment
Operational - money, time, etc.
control, it is a process used to ensure a particular level of quality - or to improve quality over time.
Features and characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy a customer's given needs.
conventional (semi conventional)
Cook hot hold serve
Centralized vs. Decentralized
advantages of conventional
Flexible menu; food costs may be lower
disadvantages of conventional
Labor costs higher
ready prepared (cook-chill)
Cook Chill Store Reheat Serve
Cook Chill Store Serve Reheat
ready prepared (cook-freeze)
Cook Freeze Store Reheat Serve
Cook Freeze Thaw Serve Reheat
ready prepared advantages
Quality and quantity control (???)
Nutrient retention (???)
ready prepared disadvantages
Large cold/frozen storage space
Food Safety (???)
Satellite Service Centers
Decreased labor/equipment costs
Slightly decreased food costs
Quality control between units
Transportation costs and problems
Holding of food
assembly serve advantages
Decreased labor costs
Portion control and less waste
assembly serve disadvantages
Selection of food items, Increased food costs, Increased freezer space
types of menu
1) Static (restaurant-style)
3) Combination (static/cycle)
4) Single use
Length of cycle
single use menu serves as what?
Creation of separate menus for special diets (meeting certain nutrition requirements)
categorizing by choice
Non-selective, Semi-selective, Selective
planning cycle menus
Determine length of cycle, Determine menu pattern, Develop lists of menu items, Systematic method of menu planning
food characteristics and combinations
6) Preparation method
2) clientele satisfaction
Food habits and preference (cultural, regional, age, gender)
dont stereotype measure using:
Food preference surveys
Plate waste studies
Style of service
Availability of foods