# Conceptual Physics Chapter 25: Waves

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Based on Conceptual Physics by: Paul G. Hewitt Vocabulary and some extra terms! Go Mrs. Kohl's Physic's Class

### Vibration

An oscillation, or repeating back and forth motion, about an equilibrium position.

### Wave

A disturbance that repeats regularly in space and time, and that is transmitted progressively from one place to the next with no actual transport of matter.

### Period

The time required for a pendulum to make one to- and - fro swing. In general, the time required to complete a single cycle.

### Simple Harmonic Motion

The back-and-forth vibratory motion of a swinging pendulum.

### Sine Curve

A curve whose shape represents the crests and troughs of a wave, as traced out by a swinging pendulum that drops a trail of sand over a moving conveyor belt.

### Crest

One of the places in a wave where the wave is highest or the disturbance is greatest.

### Trough

One of the places in a wave where the wave is lowest, or the disturbance is greatest, in the opposite direction from a crest.

### Amplitude

The distance from the midpoint to the maximum (crest) of a wave, or equivalently from the midpoint to the minimum (trough).

### Wavelength

The distance from the top of the crest of a wave to the top of the following crest, or equivalently; the distance between successive identical parts of the wave.

### Frequency

The number of events (cycles, vibrations, oscillations, or any repeated event.) per time, measured in hertz (or events per time). Inverse of period.

### Hertz

The SI unit of frequency. One hertz (Hz) us one cycle per second.

### Transverse Wave

A wave with vibration at right angles to the direction the wave is traveling.

### Longitudinal Wave

A wave in which the vibration is the same direction as that in which the wave is traveling rather than at right angles to it.

### Interference Pattern

A pattern formed by the overlapping of two or more waves that arrive in a region at the same time.

### Constructive Interference

Addition of two or more waves when wave crests overlap to produce a resulting wave of increased amplitude.

### Destructive Interference

Combination of waves where crests of one wave overlap troughs of another, resulting in a wave of decreased amplitude.

### Out of Phase

Term applied to two waves for which the crest of one wave arrives at a point at the same time that a trough of the second wave arrives. Their effects cancel each other.

### In Phase

Term applied to two or more waves whose crests (and troughs) arrive at a place at the same time, so that their effects reinforce each other.

### Standing Wave

Wave in which parts of the wave remain stationary and the wave appears not to be traveling. The result of interference appears not to be traveling. The result of the interference between an incident (original) wave and a reflected wave.

### Node

Any part of a standing wave that remains stationary.

### Anti-Nodes

Positions on a standing wave where the largest amplitudes occur

### Doppler Effect

The apparent change in the frequency of a wave due to the motions of the source or of the observer.

### Blue Shift

An increase in the measured frequency of light from an approaching source; called the blue shift because of the increase is towards the high, or blue, end of the color spectrum. Also occurs when an observer approaches the source.

### Red Shift

A decrease in the measurement of light, (or other radiation) from a receding source; called the red shift because the decrease i toward the low frequency, or red, end of the color spectrum.

### Bow Wave

The V-shaped wave produced by an object moving on a liquid surface faster than the wave speed.

### Shock Wave

A cone shaped wave produced by an object moving at supersonic speed through a fluid.

### Sonic Boom

The sharp crack heard when the shock wave that sweeps behind a supersonic aircraft reaches the listener.

### Two things that determine the period of the pendulum.

The length and the acceleration of gravity.

### Source of ALL Waves

Something that vibrates.

ENERGY

Example: