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Which of the following descriptions best matches the term nephron loop (loop of Henle)?
A) creates high interstitial NaCl concentration
B) enables production of hypertonic urine
C) relies on countercurrent multiplication
D) A, B, and C
E) B and C only

D. A, B, and C

The filtration of plasma takes place in the
A) nephron loop (loop of Henle).
B) renal corpuscle.
C) papillary duct.
D) distal convoluted tubule.
E) ureter.

B. renal corpuscle

If heavy exercise reduces blood flow to the kidneys, which of the following might occur?
A) presence of blood
B) permanent kidney injury
C) loss of protein in urine
D) A, B, and C
E) A and C only

D. A, B, and C

Which of the following formulas will allow you to calculate correctly the net filtration pressure
(FP)? (Hint: CsHP is capsular hydrostatic pressure.)
A) FP = BHP + CsHP - BCOP
B) FP = CsHP + BHP - BCOP
C) FP = BCOP + (BHP - CsHP)
D) FP = BHP - (CsHP + BCOP)
E) FP = BCOP - BHP + CsHP

D. FP=BHP-(CsHP+BCOP)

The urinary system does all of the following, except that it
A) eliminates organic waste products.
B) excretes excess albumen molecules.
C) regulates plasma concentrations of electrolytes.
D) regulates blood volume.
E) contributes to stabilizing blood pH.

B. excretes excess albumen molecules

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term renal papilla?
A) initial filtrate enters here
B) tip of the medullary pyramid
C) creates high interstitial NaCl concentration
D) releases renin
E) final urine enters here

B. tip of the medullary pyramid

Glomerulonephritis may occur as a consequence of an infection with the bacterium
A) varicella.
B) MRSA.
C) Streptococcus.
D) Clostridium difficile.
E) any of the above

streptococcus

All of the following are true of the kidneys, except that they are
A) held in place by the renal fascia.
B) located in a position that is retroperitoneal.
C) covered by peritoneum.
D) surrounded by a fibrous capsule.
E) located partly within the pelvic cavity.

E. located partly within the pelvic cavity

The ability to form a concentrated urine depends on the functions of
A) the proximal convoluted tubule.
B) the distal convoluted tubule.
C) the collecting duct.
D) the nephron loop (loop of Henle).
E) both C and D

E. both C and D

A patient excretes a large volume of very dilute urine on a continuing basis. This is may be due to
A) overproduction of aldosterone.
B) excessive ADH secretion.
C) dilation of the afferent arterioles.
D) hematuric oliguria.
E) absence of ADH.

E. absence of ADH

Substances secreted by the distal convoluted tubule include
A) penicillin.
B) creatinine.
C) hydrogen and potassium ions.
D) all of the above
E) A and B only

D. all of the above

Urine is eliminated through the
A) liver.
B) kidney.
C) urinary bladder.
D) ureter.
E) urethra.

E. urethra

Renal columns are
A) conical structures that are located in the renal medulla.
B) the basic functional units of the kidney.
C) expanded ends of the ureters.
D) bundles of tissue that extend between pyramids from the cortex.
E) internal cavities lined by the fibrous capsule.

D. bundles of tissue that extend between pyramids from the cortex

A glomerulus is
A) the source of erythropoietin.
B) the horseshoe-shaped segment of the nephron.
C) a knot of capillaries within the renal corpuscle.
D) the expanded end of a nephron.
E) attached to the collecting duct.

C. a knot of capillaries within the renal corpuscle

________ is an inherited abnormality that affects the development and structure of kidney tubules.
A) Renal failure
B) Hematuria
C) Glomerulonephritis
D) Calculus
E) Polycystic kidney disease

E. polycystic kidney disease

The ureters and urinary bladder are lined by ________ epithelium.
A) simple cuboidal
B) transitional
C) simple columnar
D) pseudostratified columnar
E) stratified squamous

B. transitional

Typical renal blood flow is about ________ ml/min under resting conditions.
A) 500 B) 2500 C) 1800 D) 800 E) 1200

E. 1200

Major calyces are
A) large branches of the renal pelvis.
B) expanded ends of nephrons.
C) conical structures that are located in the renal medulla.
D) the expanded ends of renal pyramids.
E) basic functional layers of the kidney.

A. large branches of the renal pelvis

Secretion of hydrogen ion by the PCT is by the process of
A) facilitated diffusion.
B) active transport.
C) cotransport.
D) countertransport.
E) diffusion.

D. countertransprot

The kidneys are retroperitoneal, and the renal arteries branch directly off the abdominal aorta.
A) The first part of the statement is true but the second part is false.
B) The first part of the statement is false but the second part is true.
C) Both parts of the statement are true.
D) Both parts of the statement are false.

C. Both parts of the statement are true

The cavity of the kidney that receives urine from the calyces is called the
A) renal papilla.
B) renal sinus.
C) renal cortex.
D) renal pelvis.
E) renal medulla.

D. renal pelvis

Glomerular (Bowmanʹs) capsule and the glomerulus make up the
A) collecting tubule system.
B) nephron loop (loop of Henle).
C) renal papilla.
D) renal pyramid.
E) renal corpuscle.

E. renal corpuscle

The efferent arteriole of a nephron divides to form a network of capillaries within the cortex called
the ________ capillaries.
A) vasa recta
B) peritubular
C) efferent
D) glomerular
E) cortical

B. peritubular

The urine first passes from the glomerular capsule to the
A) collecting duct.
B) nephron loop (loop of Henle).
C) minor calyx.
D) proximal convoluted tubule.
E) distal convoluted tubule.

D. proximal convoluted tubule

The condition called ________ is especially dangerous because the ureters or renal blood vessels
can become twisted or kinked during movement.
A) renal calculi
B) floating kidney
C) polycystic kidney disease
D) pyelonephritis
E) both A and D

B. floating kidney

The filtration barrier in the renal corpuscle consists of three layers:
A) endothelium of glomerulus, dense layer of glomerulus, and podocyte filtration slits.
B) podocyte filtration slits, matrix cells in the glomerulus, and endothelium of glomerulus.
C) fenestrations, matrix, and foot processes.
D) filtration slits, foot processes, and slit pores.
E) dense layer of glomerulus, foot processes, and fenestrations in the capsule.

A. endothelium of glomerulus, dense layer of glomerulus, and podocyte filtration slits

During the micturition reflex,
A) stimulation of stretch receptors in the bladder wall sends impulses to the sacral cord.
B) parasympathetic motor neurons that control the detrusor muscle become active.
C) the internal sphincter is consciously relaxed.
D) A, B, and C
E) A and B only

E. A and B only

The ________ delivers urine to a minor calyx.
A) nephron loop (loop of Henle)
B) distal convoluted tubule
C) renal corpuscle
D) ureter
E) papillary duct

E. papillary duct

Urine passes, in the order given, through which of the following structures?
A) collecting duct, renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, urethra
B) collecting duct, ureter, renal pelvis, urethra, bladder
C) renal pelvis, collecting duct, bladder, ureter, urethra
D) renal pelvis, urethra, bladder, ureter, collecting duct
E) collecting duct, renal pelvis, urethra, bladder, ureter

A. collecting duct, renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, urethra

The glomeruli are best described as being tufts of
A) veins.
B) arteries.
C) venules.
D) capillaries.
E) arterioles.

D. capillaries

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