a series of essays written by three leading Federalists-James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay (they supported a form of government that divided power between a strong central government and the states)
those favoring ratification of the Constitution and the federalist form of government
those opposed to the Constitution because they feared the power of the national government in the new federal system
In this year, representatives of the Virginia Company of London established the first permanent English settlement in North America. The settlement was called Jamestown in honor of King James I of England
On July 4 of this year, fifty-six representatives from the thirteen colonies unanimously approved the Declaration of Independence
Between May 25 and September 17 of this year, delegates gathered in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation. Instead they drafted, debated, compromised, and finally approved for ratification of the Constitution of the United States.
This term applies to those individuals who played a major role in declaring U.S. independence, fighting the Revolutionary War, or writing and adopting the U.S. Constitution. They include Thomas jefferson, George Washington, and James Madison.
French and Indian War
This struggle between the British and the French in the colonies of North America was part of a worldwide war known as the Seven Years' War.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
This document was the first written constitution in the American colonies. It was prepared as the covenant for the new Puritan community in Connecticut, established in the 1630s. This document described a system of government for the new community.
The U.S., imder the leadership of Thomas Jefferson, acquired the Louisiana Territory from France during this year. The purchase more than doubled the area of the United States.
The American Civil War was fought during these years. It began with the firing on Fort Sumter and ended with the Confederate surrender at Appomattox Court House almost four years later.
Articles of Confederation
This document, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.
Philadelphia Convention of 1787
This meeting was held "for the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation." Instead the attendees decided to scrap the Articles of Confederation and create a new plan for government, the US Constitution
The amendment granted black men the right to vote.
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
A tax on an imported product instituted to protect local industries
Power is held by the people and exercised through the efforts of representatives elected by the people.
A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed.
Work to change society for the better. Focused on improving conditions for the poor, enslaved, imprisoned, women, and disabled.
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the westen territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the origan 13 states.
Marbury v. Madison
This was the first judgment by the Supreme Court which supported the federal system of government. In 1803, Chief Justice John Marshall, a Federalist, upheld and strengthened the authority of the federal judiciary. He established the principle of judicial review, the power of the judiciary to determine that a law can be declared unconstitutional.
This amendment declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled to equal rights regardless of their rights were protected at both the state and national levels.
The movement concentrated on ending slavery in the U.S.
The process of removing impurities from iron to make steel by blasing the melted iron with hot air.
A set of economic principles based on policies which stress government regulation of economic activities to benefit the home country
Issued by Abe Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free.
Southerners favored freedom of trade and believed in te authority of states over the federal government. Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void.
English Bill of Rights
King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.
The distibution of power between a federal government and the states within a union
Theses are protected by the Bill of Rights and include economic rights related to property, political rights related to freedom of speech and press, and personal rights related to bearing arms and maintaining private residences.
Provides for the judicial branch of the government to determine if laws are constitutional.
Checks and Balances
A sytem that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Henry David Thoreau advocated this pricess of defying codes of conduct within a community or ignoring the policies and government of a state or nation when the civil laws are unjust.
McCulloch v. Maryland
In 1819, Chief Justice John Marshall continued to define the limits of the U.S. Constitution and of the authority of the federal and state governments. One side in the case was opposed to the establishment of a national bank and challenged the authority of the federal government to establish one. The Supremee Court ruled that the power of the federal government was supreme over that of the states and that the states could not interfere.
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the United States was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
During this rapid period of industrial growth more and more contries adopted mass production. Handmade goods were quickly replaced by machine-made goods. Factory laborers replaced craftsmen and home production.
In this type of government everyone, including all authority figures, must obey laws. Constitutions, statements of rights, or other laws, define the liits of those in power so they cannot take advantage of the elected, appointed, or inherited postitions.
Speech given by Abraham Lincoln which captured the spirit of liberty and morality ideally held by citizens of a democracy. That ideal was threatened by the Civil War.
Declaration of Independence
This document was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. It established the 13 colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the majority of this document.
These rights are fundamental or natural rights guaranteed to people naturally instead of by the law. They include life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
Seperation of Powers
The division of a central government into two or more branches, each having its own responsibilites and authorities.
The year the Magna Carta, the cornerstone of English justice and law was signed
The concept that political power rests with the people who create and can alter or abolish government.
Separation of Powers .
Organization of government whichinto three branches - legislative, executive and judicial; proposed by Montesquieu
prelude to the Civil War. South Carolina believed a State had the power to override the Federal (National) Government
Rebirth of ideas, art, and architecture of the Greeks and Romans
U.S. was divided over the issues of states rights and slavery
flat - horizontal lines on a map
up and down - vertical lines on a map
Renaissance Value that humans are important. It shifted the focus from the after life (religion) to a person's life on earth
movement of people from on country or location to another
Machine that allowed text to be mass produced which allowed the spreading of ideas
the spread of ideas, people and places to new places
issue of the Civil War. South believed the States had more power than the Federal Government
movement that began to correct problem in the Roman Catholic Church. It caused a split and the development of Protestant Churches
President of the United States during the Civil War
Statement made by Abraham Lincoln which essentially freed the slaves
water way through Panama that shortens the distance by water from East coast of the US to the West Coast
Martin Luther's ideas that he posted on the chuch door at Wittenburg which questioned the Roman Catholic Church. This act began the Reformation
water way through Egypt that connect the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea
pardon for sin. Martin Luther questioned the churches authority to pardon sin and especially the idea that you could buy the pardon
belief in worldly rather than spiritual ideas
technology used by early farmers to get water to the crops
split in the church
Part of the Legislative Branch whose job is to makes the Laws
surge in scientific discovery in Europe
Europeans explored and conquered much of the world. Goal was to find trade route to Asia
strong nations seek to dominate other countries (territories) politically, economically, or socially
shift from agriculture to industry (commercial industry) mass production of goods. It also led to the growth of cities and global trade
trading goods or services for other goods or services
transfer of plants, animals, disease, and cultures between Europe, Asia and Africa (Old World) and North and South America (New World). It started with Christopher Columbus to the Americas in 1492
extreme hunger and scarcity of food
Standard of living
quality of life, such as housing, health, education
Atlantic Slave Trade
millions of Africans were enslaved and transported across the Atlantic Ocean to work on plantations in the Americas and Caribbean region
an economic system in which all means of production are owned by the people, private property does not exist, and all goods and services are shared equally
Chinese invention that helped make sea travel across the Atlantic Ocean possible
king/queen who has unlimited power
an economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit (money)
18th century European movement that applied reason to all aspects of society and help changed government
Proposed the ideas of natural rights - life liberty, property
writing system in the Fertile Crescent/Mesopotamia
economic thinker that developed communism
Temples in the Fertile Crescent/Mesopotamia
Proposed that a government should have 3 branches
economic thinker that supported capitalism
early river valley civilization located in modern day Iraq on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Life, Liberty, property or Life, Liberty, the Pursuit of Happiness
invented by Eli Whitney it removed the seeds from cotton quicker than by hand which helped increase production
He created the first assembly line used for manufacturing of automobiles
Mesopotamian king who created the first written law code
England's overthrow of the monarchy and establishment of a constitutional monarchy (representative government)
English Bill of Rights
guaranteed/protected basic rights of the English citizens and foundation for US Bill of Rights
trade route that went from China to the Middle East and into Europe - called the Silk Road b/c of the Silk only coming from China
rulers power is limited by law - Great Britain's current form of government since Glorious Revolution
citizens vote for representatives who make and enforce the laws. US form of government
statistical data of a population like - GDP per capita, Life Expectance, Literacy Rate, Infant mortality, ethnicity, religion etc
Founding of Jamestown
1607 first colony in America. Established representative government based on the British system of government
percent of people in a country that can read and write
average number of years people live
government where the religious leader run the government
belief in one god
belief in many gods
Declaration of Independence
sent to Britain (George III) with the grievances the Colonist had with England and why they were going to become their own Nation
He wrote the Declaration of Independence, was the 3rd president of the U.S.A. and made the Louisiana purchase
government ruled by a few powerful people
He was commander of the Continental Army, defeated Cornwallis at the Battle Yorktown, and 1st president of the U.S. A.
Articles of Confederation
US first plan of government that failed because of the weak central (national) government
supporters of the Constitution. They favored a strong national government.
pride in ones country
Articles published to get support for the Constitution.
right of groups of people to create their own nation
government where citizens vote directly on laws - ex: Athens
opposed to the Constitution because it gave too much power to the national government and not enough to the states. They also wanted individual rights protected
government were citizens elect representatives ex: Rome Greece
A form of government that controls every aspect of public and private life. EX: Hitler in Germany
Year that the first 10 amendments to the Constitution were made which protected the rights of individuals from abuses of the national government
Emporer of the Byzantine Empire who wrote a law code
period in Europe that began after the fall of the Roman Empire Characterized by feudalism, Roman Catholic Church was the unifier of the age with more power than Kings/Lords
division of power between the national (federal) and state governments - ex.: national gov't coins money and the state gov't cannot
Battle of Hastings - centralized government
restrictions on the powers the government has like states cannot create money
Term used to describe the division between Western (democratic) Europe and Eastern (communist) Europe
The form of government where people elect representatives the create and enforce laws
Christian warriors sent to regain the Holy Land (Jerusalem) from the Muslims that controlled
Checks and Balances
each branch of government has a way to restrict/check the actions of the other 2 branches
law code signed by King John of England that limited his power and was the first time for limited government
disease brought to Europe from the Mongols during the Middle Ages. It killed 1/3 of the population and helps end Feudalism
Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness same as natural or individual rights
Leader of Great Britain in WWII who coined the phrase Iron Curtain
The year in which the American colonies declared their independence from Great Britain.
This British tax charged a tax on wills, newspapers, and even dice.
What is the Boston Massacre?This event left 5 men dead to British gunfire.
This tax charged a tax on tea, paper, and glass.
This act stated that Britain had the right to tax at any time
This act allowed British troops to stay with colonials.
Boston Tea Party
The Sons of Liberty action in protest to a tax on a certain beverage.
The action of not buying an item as a form of protest.
Lexington and Concord
The first battle of the American Revolution between militia and the British army.
Olive Branch Petition
The last effort by the Continental Congress to have peace with Britain that was rejected by King George III
Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine to explain why America should break away from Britain.
This man was the leader of the Sons of Liberty and a great speaker against Britain.
This man is the primary author of the Declaration of Independence.
George Washington This Virginian was the commander of the Continental Army. He pulled off great victories at Princeton and Trenton in the Revolutionary War.
A religious movement of revivals that were highly emotional and led to new churches.
A movement that encouraged the use of science and reason.
Declaration of Independence
The document that America officially declares their independence from Britain
These laws were passed by Britain to punish Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party.
No Taxation Without Representation
The colonists complaint that they did not have representatives serving in Parliament.
joint stock company
business funded by a group of people who make an investment and share in profits and losses
land claimed by a country in a different area of the world. settlers are sent to this area to maintain claim.
settlement of the colony
colony exists to benefit the mother country financially maintaining wealth by controlling trade
businesses compete for consumers who are free to decide where to purchase goods. government has little control
trade route that existed betweeen the 13 colonies, africa, and the west indies. items included rum, sugar and slaves
person who receives passage to n. america in exchange ofr work. indentured servants worked without pay for a certain period of time
african american who is purchased to work for life on a plantation
buying and selling of humans for forcad labor
large farm that grew cash crops. the land was farmed by slaves who lived on the farm
crops grown to sell
crops that are always in demand
production of goods in a factory setting
tax placed on goods coming into a country
a tariff placed on foreign goods to protect the domestic industry
to show favoritism towards a group
system of government in which power is held by a king or queen
new england colonies
massachusetts, rhade island, connecticut, and new hampshire
new york, new jersey, delaware, and pennsylvania.
marlyand, virginia, north carolina, south carolina, and georgia.
issues relating to government and a citizens' relationship with government
issues relating to how people make money for their families; the production of goods and services
issues relating society including people, language, religion, education, art, etc.
person who wanted to seperate from the church of england
area that is similar in climate, geographic features, and economics
a change to the constitution
to officialy accept
rights that all people possess; rights the government cannot deny
introduction of the declaration of independence
putting government duty ahead of personal desires
responsibilities of citizenship includes voting, and paying taxes
rebelling against government; not meeting your civic duties
do away with, bring something to an end
person who wanted slavery to end
men who helped shap the united states through ideas, documents, and leadership.
group of people with similar ideas about government
allows the supreme court to declare laws unconstitutional
to declare legally void; invalidate
view that the states should hold more power than the federal government.
the belief that the united states should spread from "sea to shining sea."
moving from one country to another
new ways of doing things based on new discoveries
to formally surrender, give up
group of states formally united under one government
everyone, regardless of sex, race, or ethnicity has equal rights
to be added to a larger entity
to take the legal steps and become a citizen
making the section more important than the group
a firsthand or eyewitness account of an event.
an enlightenment thinker to influence the Declaration of Independence with "natural rights".
one of the earliest people to discover North America. I founded Newfoundland as a trading post.
The first colony in America, founded in 1607
Lexington and Concord
I was the "shot heard 'round the world."
a tax raised on any printed item in the colonies
an external tax on imports in the colonies that was later repealed.
Sons of Liberty
the colonial organization who threw 342 cases of tea into the Boston Harbor.
happened in 1770 when British troops fired upon and killed 5 colonists.
Proclamation of 1763
a provision passed in 1763 that would not allow British colonists in North America settle any further west than the Appalachian Mountains.
an act that claimed England had the power to create any law for the colonies.
pushed for independence in my speech
Rights that cannot be taken away. "Life
1st Continental Congress
met in 1774 to discuss unfair mandates and high taxes
rode a horse to warn the people in Lexington that the British were coming
a series of separate laws passed by the British government for strict enforcement of taxes and control (the most notable was the Quartering Act)
a tax raised on items like molasses that England claimed would cover the cost for colonial defense.
written primarily by Thomas Jefferson
wrote Common Sense
primary author of the Federalist Papers
Articles of Confederation
the first Constitution of the U.S. I was created with a weak central authority because the people of the new country were worried the government would be too big.
the belief that the people hold all the power.
New Jersey Plan
plan for the Constitution in which every state would have the same amount of representatives in one house of the legislature.
the First president of the United States
Second Continental Congress
originally took place to revise the Articles of Confederation. I wrote a new constitution instead.
the fundamental belief that the Constitution is set up to prevent an all powerful government.
the branch of government that is headed up by the president.
year of Louisiana Purchase
the branch of government called Congress.
written by James Madison to promote the idea of a bicameral legislature
proposed by Roger Sherman of Connecticut to combined the Virginia and New Jersey Plan.
the belief that the power is divided between the state and national governments.
Built the first reliable steam engine
the branch of government that interprets laws and settles disputes.
Separation of Powers
the Constitutional idea that there is a system of checks and balances.
the idea that the will of the people can be expressed by elected representatives.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
written in 1852. I showed the evils of slavery
the concept that different parts of America have different economic means.
a law passed to outlaw slavery in the U.S. above an imaginary line.
Dred Scott Decision
a court decision that determined slaves were property of their owners even in a free state.
led by John C. Calhoun and the Southern states to nullify (get rid of) federal taxes. tried to prove that states rights superseded (came before) federal rights.
Fugitive Slave Act
passed in 1850 to make Northern federal agents return escaped slaves to their owners in the South.
built the cotton gin and interchangeable parts.
an abolitionist that led a raid of 17 people on an arsenal at Harper's Ferry.
the president that approved the Indian Removal Act.
Nebraska Act-a law that allowed people in Kansas and Nebraska to determine slavery or non-slavery.
Trail of Tears
the journey the Native Americans took to Oklahoma where 4000 people died.
I was a doctrine that prevented European nations from interfering in the affairs of any country in North or South America.
the amendment that freed southern slaves and abolished slavery.
the first state to secede from the Union.
the amendment that guaranteed equal citizenship for former slaves.
the first battle of the Civil War.
John Wilkes Booth
the man that assassinated President Lincoln in a theater
a great speech given by President Lincoln
the amendment that guarantees suffrage (right to vote) for all former slaves. What am I?
Robert E. Lee
the general of the Confederate Army.
where the final terms of surrender were signed by Lee and Grant
the proclamation signed by Lincoln that freed the slaves.
the process of rebuilding the nation after the Civil War.
Compromise of 1850
allowed the people in each state to vote on if it would be a free state or a slave state
Fugitive Slave Act
federal agents had to return fugitive slaves back to their owners or face a fine.
the year the Civil War started
the year the Civil War ended
right to free religion
right to bear arms
right not to house soldiers in civilian homes
right to protection from unreasonable search and seizures
right to know the reason for arrest and right to refuse to testify against yourself in court ("I plead the 5th!)
right to a speedy trial by jury
right to trial by jury
protection from cruel and unusual punishment
rights not listed in the constitution are automatically given to the people
rights not listed as powers of the federal government are given to the state governments
French general who led a coup d'etat to overthrow the French directory
British prime minister who led Britain during WWII
Indian leader who used passive resistance and civil disobedience to protest british rule in India
Babylonian leader who had 282 laws
President during the Civil War