system of inheritance from father to eldest son for ownership or possession of land.
one of the founders of Georgia; keenly interested in prison reform
Act of Toleration
Maryland statute of 1649 that granted religious freedom to all Christians, but not to those who denied the divinity of Jesus, such as Jews and atheists.
simple agreement to form the first crude government in America; significance - though not a constitution itself, it set up the precedent for later constitutions
Sought to establish wide-ranging English control over colonial commerece - required the colonists to buy good only from England, to sell certain of their products only to England, and to import any non-English goods via English ports and pay a duty on those products. Prohibited the colonies from manufacturing a number of goods that England already produced.
believed in predestination, claiming that a holy life was no sure sign of salvation and that the truly saved need not bother to obey the law of either God or man; forced to leave Mass. in 1637; antinomianism
encouraged the importation of servant workers; whoever paid the passage of the labourer recieved the right to acquire 50 acres of the land therefore the masters, not the the servants, reaped the benefits of the system.
frontiersmen who resented Governor Berkley´s friendly policies towards the Indians fell murderously upon the Indians after Berkley refused to retaliate for a series of savage Indian attacks on the frontier settlements
arrangement in the Purtian church to admit to baptism but not ¨full communion¨ the unconverted children of existing members; weakened the distinction between the ¨elect¨ and the others.
first spontaneous mass movement of the American people; begun by John Edwards to return to Puritanism in the 1730s; greatly increased the numbers and the competiveness of American churches
ignited the Great Awakening with his rousing sermons on the hellish torments of the damned; stressed that God was all-powerful and would only save those who openly profesed belief in Jesus Christ; taught that ordinary people who had faith could understand the Christian Gospels without depending on ministers to lead them.
first important victory for freedom of press in the colonies
French and Indian War
Seven Years' War; French and Indians vs English and Americans; result of colonial expansion; as English settlers moved into the Ohio Valley, the French tried to stop them by building fortified outposts at strategic entry spots, in an attempt to protect their profitable fur trade and their control of the region; Washington attacked a French outpost and lost badly, other skirmishes and battles ensued, and in 1756 England officially declared war on the French; at the end of the war, England was the undisputed colonial power of the continent. The treaty gave England control of Canada and almost everything east of the Mississippi Valley. The French only kept two sugar islands; English didn't make a good impression on the Americans who served for them during the war, planting the first seeds of anti-British sentiment in colonies, particularly in New England where much of the fighting took place and where msot of the colonial soliders came from
British leader in the French and Indian War
Proclamation of 1763
issued by London government prohibiting settlement west of the Appalacian Mountains; not meant to oppress the colonists at all but to work out the Indian problem and prevent another uprising like Pontiac's Rebellion
Stamp Act Congress
27 delegates from 9 colonies who drew up a statement of their rights and grievances and beseeched the King and the Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act; significant step towards intercolonial unity
English response of the Boston Tea Party; closed the Boston Harbor to all but essential trade and declared it would remian closed until the tea was paid for; several measures tightened English control over the Massachusetts government and its courts; another measure required civilians to hosue soliders in their home; Acts convinced many colonists that their days of semi-autonomy were over and that the future held even further encroachments on their liberties by the Crown
First Continental Congress
created The Association; called for the complete boycott of British goods (nonimportation, nonexportation and nonconsumption); delegates NOT calling for independence, merely sought to repeal the offensive legislation and return to the days before parliamentary taxation
Second Continental Congress
drafted new appeals to the British people and the King; single most important act - elected George Washington to head the hastily improvised army besieging Boston
wealthy printer and successful intellectual; author of "Poor Richard´s Almanck"; espoused Enlightment ideals about education, government, and religion; invented bifocals, lightning rod, Franklin stove; developed the Albany Plan of Union; ambassador in Europe, where he negotiated a crucial alliance with the French and the peace treaty that ended the Revoultionary War
Treaty of Paris, 1783
granted the US independence and generous territorial rights
Articles of Confederation
first national constitution; more concerned with prohibiting the government from gaining too much power than with empowering it to function effectively - didn´t give the government the power to tax or to regulate trade, created little to no central government, etc.
contained a bill of rights guaranteeing trial by jury, freedom of religion, and freedom from excessive punishment; abolished slavery in the territories northwest of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River, up to the Canadian border; set specific regulations concerning the conditions under which the territories could apply for statehood
largers states were conceded representation by population in the House of Rep.; smaller states were appeased by equal representation in Senate - each state would have two senators
1st President of the US
began in western Pennsylvania when farmers resisted an excise tax on whiskey; rebellion put down by Washington who dispatched the milita to disperse the rebels; significant because demonstrated both the strength and fairness of the new federal government
Spain granted the Americans free navigation of the Mississippi and the large disputed territory north of FL in an attempt to aviod an Anglo-American alliance
law which shut down America's import and export business, with disastrous economic results, indirectly hurting the commerce far more than UK and France were doing together; embodied Jefferson's idea of "peaceful coercion". If it worked, it would vindicate the rights of neutral nations and point to a new way of conducting foreign affairs. If it failed, Jefferson feared the Republic might perish
Marbury vs. Madison
court ruled that Marbury did have the right to his judgeship but that court could not enfroce his right because it was declared unconstitutional; decision in the case led to the establisment of one of the most important principles of the Supreme Court: judicial review.
author of the Declaration of Independence; 3rd President of the US
War of 1812
caused by the continued violation of US neutral rights at sea and troubles with he British on the western frontier;
Henry Clay's comprehensive method for advancing the nation's economic growth; consisted for three parts, protective tariffs, a national bank, and internal improvements
policy of mutual noninterference - Europe stays out of the Americas and America stays out of Europe; claimed the US's right to intervene anywhere in its own hemisphere, if it felt its security was threatened
John Quincy Adams
6th president of the US; as secretary of state under Monroe, deftly negotiated a number of treaties that fixed US borders and opened new territories
7th President of the US; strengthened the power of the presidency; supportive of states' rights, but during the Nullification Crisis, declared that states do not have the right to nullify federal laws; strongly against the national bank, he vetoed the renewal of its charter and ensured its collapse; enforced of the Indian Removal Act
leader in the House of Representatives; proposed the American System and the Compromise of 1850; candidate of the Election of 1824; favoured the bank and the Missouri Compromise
formed due to the the nativist hostility to the immigrant Germans and Irish Catholic; drew support away from the Whigs at a time when that party was reeling from its defeat in the 1852 election; burning issue was opposition to Catholics and immigrants who were entering northern cities in large numbers
revolutionary machine invented by Eli Whitney that revived King Cotton; separated the seed from the short-staple cotton fiber, fifty times more effective than the handpicking process
Cult of Domesticity
widespread cultural creed that glorified customary functions of the homemaker; upon marriage, women left their jobs to become wives and mothers.
Second Great Awakening
period of religious revival mainly among Methodists, Presbyterians, and Baptists; began in NY, the Burned-Over District (a place so heavily evangelized that there were no more people left to convert), and spread to the rest of the country; sparked an intense period of evangelicalism in the South and West
Woman´s Rights Convention at Seneca Falllas
first women's rights convention in American history; issued a document, "The Declaration of Sentiments", claiming all men and women are created equal; led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B Anthony
questioned the the doctrines of established churches and capitalistic habits of the merchants class; argued for a mystical and intuitive way of thinking as a means for discovering one's inner self and looking for the essence of God in nature; challenged the materialistic views of American society
Nat Turner´s rebellion
Rebellion led by the black preacher, Nat Turner, in which 60 Virginians were killed; Turner and 15 others were hung
William Lloyd Garrison
published "The Liberator", an anti-slavery newspaper, in Boston; wanted to stamp out slavery immeaditely, the North to secede from the South, and equal rights for women
became a leader of the abolitionist movement after escaping from slavery, gaining note for his dazzling oratory and incisive antislavery writing; stood as a living counter-example to slaveholders' arguments that slaves did not have the intellectual capacity to function as independent American citizens
Treaty of Guadlupe Hidalgo
Mexico handed over most almost all of the modern Southwest, known as the Mexican Cession, which the US paid $15 million for.
stipulated that slavery should never exist in any of the territory gained from the Mexican Cession
James K. Polk
Democrat expansionist who win in the election of 1844 against Clay, making him the 11th President of the US.
the territories themselves would decide, by vote, whether to allow slavery within their borders.
Compromise of 1850
proposed by Henry Clay; admitted CA to the Union as a free state; divided the remained of the Mexican Cession into two territories, Utah and New Mexico, and allowed the settlers in these territories to decide the slavery issue by majority vote; gave the land in dispute between Texas and the New Mexico territory to the new territories in return for the federal government assuming Texas' public debt of $10 million; banned slave trade, not slavery, in DC; adopted a new Fugitive Slave Law and enforced it rigourously
proposed that the Nebraska Territory be divided into the Kansas Territory and the Nebraska territory, and the settlers be free to decide whether or not to allow slavery; passage renewed the sectional controversy that had been at least partly resolved but the Compromise of 1850 and caused the emergence of a new political party, the Republicans; repealed the Missouri Compromise
Uncle Tom´s Cabin
novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe; an extremely important piece of propaganda, awakening antislavery sentiment in millions who had never before given the issue much thought
consequence of the Kansas-Nebraska Act; Slaveholders from the neighbouring state of Mississippi set up homesteads in Kansas chiefly as a means of winning control of the territory for the South. Northern abolitionists and Free-Soilers responded by organizing the New England Emigrant Aid Society, which paid for the transportation of antislavery settlers to Kansas. Fighting soon broke out between the proslavery and the antislavery groups.
Confederate States of America
formed by the states seceded from the Union, who chose Jefferson Davis as their president.
16th President of the US (won the Election of 1860); moderate Republican; leader of the Union during the Civil War; issued the Emancipation Proclamation; assassinated by Booth, the first assassination of a US President
National Banking System
authorized by Congress in 1863; launched partly as a stimulant to the sale of government bonds, it was also designed to establish a standard bank-note currency; banks that joined could buy government bonds and issued sound paper money backed by them; first significant step taken toward a unified banking network since 1836, when the Bank of the US was killed by Jackson
As a way to attract settlers to develop the West, the federal government offered 160 acres of land to anyone who would cultivate the land for five years.
stated that on Jan. 1st, 1863 the government would liberate all slaves residing in those states still "in rebellion" - didn't liberate the slaves in the border states nor did it liberate slaves in Southern counties already under the control of the Union army; changed the purpose of the war for the Union, it declared that they were against slavery
speech delivered by Abraham Lincoln at the dedication of the national cemetery dedicated to the Battle of Gettysburg in which he summarized the case for American nationhood
Ulysses S. Grant
general of the Union army during the Civil War, leading them to a victory over Robert E Lee and the south; 18th President of the US
"10%" Reconstruction Plan
Required that ten percent of those voters who had voted in the 1860 election swear an oath of allegiance to the Union and accept Emancipation through the Thirteenth Amendment. These men would then reorganize their state government and reapply for admission into the Union.
Purchase of Alaska from the Russians to maintain good relations with them.
Southern Democrat who became president after Lincoln's assassination; initial stages of Reconstruction left entirely in his hands
era between Reconstruction and 1900, in which the politics looked goof but just beneath the surface lay corruption and patronage.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Supereme Court ruled that "seperate but equal" facilities for different races was legal, setting back the civil rights gains made during Reconstruction
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic candidate who ran on a strictly Populist platform; he based his campaign on the call for "free silver".
steel mogul who promoted a philosophy based on the work of Charles Darwin - argued that in business, unrestricted competition allowed only the fittest to survive, a theory called Social Darwinsim; supported all types of government assistance to business; asserted that great wealth brought great social responsibility, dubbing his philosophy the Gospel of Wealth - advocated philanthropy, as by building libraries, but not charity.
John D. Rockefeller
founded a company, Standard Oil Trust, that would come to control most of the nation's oil refineries by eliminating its competition
Haymarket Square Riot
During an 1886 labour demonstration in Chicago´s Haymarket Square, a bomb went off, killing police. Many blamed the incident on the influence of the radicals within the union movement, although no one knew who set off the bomb.
sensational reporting; bold screaming headlines and lurid tales of scandal; begun by Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst
Booker T. Washington
taught black students useful trades so that they could gain self-respect and economic security, a self-help approach which stopped short of directly challenging white supremacy; avoided the issue of social equality instead grudgingly acquiesced in segregation in return for the right to develop the economic and educational resources of the black community; believed that economic independence would ultimately be the ticket to black political and civil rights
first African American to receive a doctorate from Harvard; advocated full equal rights for blacks, integrated schools, and equal access to higher education for the "talented tenth" of African American youth
Dawes Severalty Act
broke up the reservations and distributed some of the land to the hand of each Native American family. The allotment was 160 acres of land; however, it was required that the family live on the land for twenty-five years, after which the land was lefally theirs along with citizenship.
caused by the cut in wages and the firing of the leaders of the workers' delegation that went to bargain with George Pullman; workers at Pullman laid down their tools and appealed for help from the American Railroad Union, who directed the railroad workers not to handle any trains with Pullman cars, tying up rail transportation across the country
Frederick Jackson Turner
wrote "The Significance of the Frontier in American History"; argued that the US owed the survival of its democratic tradition to the rise of the West, not to its roots in the more conservative, aristocratic East; safety valve theory
declared that the United States had no intention of taking political control of Cuba and that, once peace was restored to the island, the Cuban people would control their own government
sprang into being to fight the McKinley administration's expansionist moves; objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire because they believed imperialism violated the credo of republicanism, especially the need for "consent of the governed"; believed that annexation and administration of backward tropical areas would mean the abandonment of American ideals of self-government and isolation; ultimately failed, since the Philippines were annexed in 1990
Open Door Note (Policy)
Secretary of State John Hay urged the announcement that in their leaseholds or spheres of influence they would respect certain Chinese rights and the ideal fair competition; accepted by Italy unconditionally but UK, Germany, France, and Japan accepted subject to the condition that the others acquiesce unconditionally and politely declined by Russia; patriotic Chinese didn't mind being used as a doormat by the Europeans
"Big Stick Policy"; troops repeatedly intervened in Latin America, claiming that L.America domestic instability constituted a threat to American security
26th President of the US; VP under McKinley; prominent Progessive leader; first to successfully use the Sherman Antitrust Act against monopolies; tightened food and drug regulations, created national parks, and broadened the government's power to protect land from overdevelopment
gave the US a free hand to build the Panama Canal without British involvement and conceded to the right to fortify it as well; canceled out an earlier treaty made with the British