Terms and Concepts

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1. Cross Sectional- A research strategy in which individuals of different ages are compared at one time 2. Longitudinal- A research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time usually several years or more 3. Sequential- Study design that combines cross-sectional and longitudinal techniques. 4. Independent Variable- The manipulated, influential experimental factor 5. Dependant Variable- The factor that can change in an experiment as a result of changes made to the in…

1. Cross Sectional- A research strategy in which individuals of different ages are compared at one time

2. Longitudinal- A research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time usually several years or more
3. Sequential- Study design that combines cross-sectional and longitudinal techniques.
4. Independent Variable- The manipulated, influential experimental factor
5. Dependant Variable- The factor that can change in an experiment as a result of changes made to the independent variable
6. Experiment- A carefully regulated procedure in which one or more of the factors believed to influence the behavior being studies is manipulated and all other factors are held constant. Experimental research permits the determination of cause
7. Correlation Research- The goal is to describe the strength of the relation between two or more events or characteristics
8. Random Sample- A random sample is a subset of individuals that are randomly selected from a population
9. Random Assignment- Researchers assign participants to experimental and control groups by chance
10. Case Study- An in depth examination of an individual
11. Nature- Refers to an organisms biological inheritance
12. Nurture- Refers to an organisms environmental experiences
13. Nature-Nurture Issue- The debate about the extent to which development is influenced by nature and by nurture
14. Conception- When two parental cells meet to create a new individual
15. Plasticity- The capacity for change
16. Culture- The behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation
17. Ethnicity- A range of characteristics rooted in cultural heritage, including nationality, race, religion, and language
18. SES- Refers to the conceptual grouping of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics
19. Eclectic Theoretical Orientation- An approach that selects and uses whatever is considered the best in many theories
20. Cohort Effects- Effects that are due to a subjects time of birth or generation but not age
21. Normative Age-graded Influences- Biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group
22. Normative History-graded- Biological and environmental influences that are associated with history. These influences are common to people of a particular generation
23. Non-normative Life Events- Unusual occurrences that have a major impact on a person's life. The occurrence, pattern, and sequence of these events are not applicable to many individuals
24. Adoption Studies- A study in which investigations seek to discover weather, in behavior and psychological characteristics, adopted children are more like their adoptive parents, who provided a home environment, or more like their biological parents, who contributed to their heredity. Another form of the adoption study is to compare adoptive and biological siblings
25. Twin Studies- A study in which behavior similarity of identical twins is compared with the behavioral similarity of fraternal twins
26. ZPD- Vygotsky's term for tasks too difficult for children to master alone but that can be mastered with assistance
27. Role Models- A person looked to by others as an example to be imitated
28. Imitation- The action of using someone or something as a model
29. Schemes- In Piaget's theory, actions or mental representations that organize knowledge
30. Accommodation- Piagetian concept of adjusting schemes to fit new information and experiences
31. Assimilation- Piagetian concept of using existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences
32. Motherese- The speech patterns and restricted vocabulary used by parents and caregivers when speaking to very young children
33. Sensitive Periods- A time during infancy where attachment could occur
34. Genotype- A person's genetic heritage; the actual genetic material
35. Phenotype- The way an individuals genotype is expressed in observed and measurable characteristics
36. Neuroscience- The scientific study of the nervous system
37. Epigenetic View- Emphasizes that development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional, interchange between heredity and the environment
38. Positive Reinforcement (Operant conditioning-rewards)- Desired behavior occurs and is rewarded resulting in increases behavior
39. Negative Reinforcement (Operant conditioning)- individual is put in a fearful state, the desired behavior occurs the negative state is removed (car dinging)
40. Punishment- A penalty that is imposed on somebody for wrong doing
41. Discipline- The practice or methods of teaching and enforcing acceptable patterns of behavior
42. Classical Conditioning- The teaching of a response to a new stimulus by pairing it repeatedly with a stimulus for which there is a biological reflex. (Pavlov's dog)
43. Operant Conditioning- A form of learning that takes place when an instance of spontaneous behavior is either reinforced by a reward or discouraged by punishment
44. Reconstructive Memory- The process of putting information together based on general types of stored knowledge in the absence of a specific memory representation.
45. Egocentrism- The inability to distinguish between one's own perspective and someone else's (preoperational thought)
46. Animism- The belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities and are capable of actions
47. Conservation- In Piaget's theory, awareness that altering an object's or substance's appearance doesn't change it's basic characteristics
48. Object Permanence- The Piagetian term for understanding that objects and events continue to exist, even when they cannot be directly seen, heard of touched
49. IQ- A person's mental age divided by their chronological age multiplied by 100
50. Attachment- A close emotional bond between two people
51. Theory of Mind- Refers to the awareness on one's own mental processes and the mental processes of others
52. Habituation- Decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations of the stimulus
53. Dishabituation-Recovery of a habituated response after a change in stimulation
54. Teratogen- Any agent that can potentially cause birth defects or negatively influence cognitive and behavioral outcomes
55. ID- The part of the psyche that is unconscious and the source of primitive instinctive impulses and drives.
56. Ego- One of three main divisions of the mind, containing consciousness and memory and involved with control, planning, and conforming to reality
57. Superego- The part of the mind that acts as a conscience to the ego, developing moral standards and rules through contact with parents and society
58. Adolescence- Stage of life starting around 10 to 12 years and ending usually between 18 and 22 years; filled with "storm and stress"; transition from childhood to adult hood when an individual begins to develop an identity
59. Sexual Orientation- Who you find attractive, how sexual you are, and if you are sexually active
60. Amygdala- The region of the brain in charge of emotions
61. Prefrontal Cortex- plays a role in the regulation of complex cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functioning
62. Mid-life Crisis- Loss of confidence in middle age
63. Empty Nest Syndrome- A term used to indicate a decrease in marital satisfaction after children leave home
64. Gerontology- scientific study of aging
65. Life Expectancy- The number of years that will probably be lived by the average person born in that particular year
66. Centenarian- 100+ year-old person
67. Ageism- Discrimination directed at age
68. Alzheimer's Disease- A progressive, irreversible brain disorder characterized by a gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and eventually physical function
69. Dementia- Global term for any neurological disorder in which the primary symptom involves deterioration of mental functioning

2. Longitudinal- A research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time usually several years or more
3. Sequential- Study design that combines cross-sectional and longitudinal techniques.
4. Independent Variable- The manipulated, influential experimental factor
5. Dependant Variable- The factor that can change in an experiment as a result of changes made to the independent variable
6. Experiment- A carefully regulated procedure in which one or more of the factors believed to influence the behavior being studies is manipulated and all other factors are held constant. Experimental research permits the determination of cause
7. Correlation Research- The goal is to describe the strength of the relation between two or more events or characteristics
8. Random Sample- A random sample is a subset of individuals that are randomly selected from a population
9. Random Assignment- Researchers assign participants to experimental and control groups by chance
10. Case Study- An in depth examination of an individual
11. Nature- Refers to an organisms biological inheritance
12. Nurture- Refers to an organisms environmental experiences
13. Nature-Nurture Issue- The debate about the extent to which development is influenced by nature and by nurture
14. Conception- When two parental cells meet to create a new individual
15. Plasticity- The capacity for change
16. Culture- The behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation
17. Ethnicity- A range of characteristics rooted in cultural heritage, including nationality, race, religion, and language
18. SES- Refers to the conceptual grouping of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics
19. Eclectic Theoretical Orientation- An approach that selects and uses whatever is considered the best in many theories
20. Cohort Effects- Effects that are due to a subjects time of birth or generation but not age
21. Normative Age-graded Influences- Biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group
22. Normative History-graded- Biological and environmental influences that are associated with history. These influences are common to people of a particular generation
23. Non-normative Life Events- Unusual occurrences that have a major impact on a person's life. The occurrence, pattern, and sequence of these events are not applicable to many individuals
24. Adoption Studies- A study in which investigations seek to discover weather, in behavior and psychological characteristics, adopted children are more like their adoptive parents, who provided a home environment, or more like their biological parents, who contributed to their heredity. Another form of the adoption study is to compare adoptive and biological siblings
25. Twin Studies- A study in which behavior similarity of identical twins is compared with the behavioral similarity of fraternal twins
26. ZPD- Vygotsky's term for tasks too difficult for children to master alone but that can be mastered with assistance
27. Role Models- A person looked to by others as an example to be imitated
28. Imitation- The action of using someone or something as a model
29. Schemes- In Piaget's theory, actions or mental representations that organize knowledge
30. Accommodation- Piagetian concept of adjusting schemes to fit new information and experiences
31. Assimilation- Piagetian concept of using existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences
32. Motherese- The speech patterns and restricted vocabulary used by parents and caregivers when speaking to very young children
33. Sensitive Periods- A time during infancy where attachment could occur
34. Genotype- A person's genetic heritage; the actual genetic material
35. Phenotype- The way an individuals genotype is expressed in observed and measurable characteristics
36. Neuroscience- The scientific study of the nervous system
37. Epigenetic View- Emphasizes that development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional, interchange between heredity and the environment
38. Positive Reinforcement (Operant conditioning-rewards)- Desired behavior occurs and is rewarded resulting in increases behavior
39. Negative Reinforcement (Operant conditioning)- individual is put in a fearful state, the desired behavior occurs the negative state is removed (car dinging)
40. Punishment- A penalty that is imposed on somebody for wrong doing
41. Discipline- The practice or methods of teaching and enforcing acceptable patterns of behavior
42. Classical Conditioning- The teaching of a response to a new stimulus by pairing it repeatedly with a stimulus for which there is a biological reflex. (Pavlov's dog)
43. Operant Conditioning- A form of learning that takes place when an instance of spontaneous behavior is either reinforced by a reward or discouraged by punishment
44. Reconstructive Memory- The process of putting information together based on general types of stored knowledge in the absence of a specific memory representation.
45. Egocentrism- The inability to distinguish between one's own perspective and someone else's (preoperational thought)
46. Animism- The belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities and are capable of actions
47. Conservation- In Piaget's theory, awareness that altering an object's or substance's appearance doesn't change it's basic characteristics
48. Object Permanence- The Piagetian term for understanding that objects and events continue to exist, even when they cannot be directly seen, heard of touched
49. IQ- A person's mental age divided by their chronological age multiplied by 100
50. Attachment- A close emotional bond between two people
51. Theory of Mind- Refers to the awareness on one's own mental processes and the mental processes of others
52. Habituation- Decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations of the stimulus
53. Dishabituation-Recovery of a habituated response after a change in stimulation
54. Teratogen- Any agent that can potentially cause birth defects or negatively influence cognitive and behavioral outcomes
55. ID- The part of the psyche that is unconscious and the source of primitive instinctive impulses and drives.
56. Ego- One of three main divisions of the mind, containing consciousness and memory and involved with control, planning, and conforming to reality
57. Superego- The part of the mind that acts as a conscience to the ego, developing moral standards and rules through contact with parents and society
58. Adolescence- Stage of life starting around 10 to 12 years and ending usually between 18 and 22 years; filled with "storm and stress"; transition from childhood to adult hood when an individual begins to develop an identity
59. Sexual Orientation- Who you find attractive, how sexual you are, and if you are sexually active
60. Amygdala- The region of the brain in charge of emotions
61. Prefrontal Cortex- plays a role in the regulation of complex cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functioning
62. Mid-life Crisis- Loss of confidence in middle age
63. Empty Nest Syndrome- A term used to indicate a decrease in marital satisfaction after children leave home
64. Gerontology- scientific study of aging
65. Life Expectancy- The number of years that will probably be lived by the average person born in that particular year
66. Centenarian- 100+ year-old person
67. Ageism- Discrimination directed at age
68. Alzheimer's Disease- A progressive, irreversible brain disorder characterized by a gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and eventually physical function
69. Dementia- Global term for any neurological disorder in which the primary symptom involves deterioration of mental functioning

2. Longitudinal- A research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time usually several years or more
3. Sequential- Study design that combines cross-sectional and longitudinal techniques.
4. Independent Variable- The manipulated, influential experimental factor
5. Dependant Variable- The factor that can change in an experiment as a result of changes made to the independent variable
6. Experiment- A carefully regulated procedure in which one or more of the factors believed to influence the behavior being studies is manipulated and all other factors are held constant. Experimental research permits the determination of cause
7. Correlation Research- The goal is to describe the strength of the relation between two or more events or characteristics
8. Random Sample- A random sample is a subset of individuals that are randomly selected from a population
9. Random Assignment- Researchers assign participants to experimental and control groups by chance
10. Case Study- An in depth examination of an individual
11. Nature- Refers to an organisms biological inheritance
12. Nurture- Refers to an organisms environmental experiences
13. Nature-Nurture Issue- The debate about the extent to which development is influenced by nature and by nurture
14. Conception- When two parental cells meet to create a new individual
15. Plasticity- The capacity for change
16. Culture- The behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation
17. Ethnicity- A range of characteristics rooted in cultural heritage, including nationality, race, religion, and language
18. SES- Refers to the conceptual grouping of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics
19. Eclectic Theoretical Orientation- An approach that selects and uses whatever is considered the best in many theories
20. Cohort Effects- Effects that are due to a subjects time of birth or generation but not age
21. Normative Age-graded Influences- Biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group
22. Normative History-graded- Biological and environmental influences that are associated with history. These influences are common to people of a particular generation
23. Non-normative Life Events- Unusual occurrences that have a major impact on a person's life. The occurrence, pattern, and sequence of these events are not applicable to many individuals
24. Adoption Studies- A study in which investigations seek to discover weather, in behavior and psychological characteristics, adopted children are more like their adoptive parents, who provided a home environment, or more like their biological parents, who contributed to their heredity. Another form of the adoption study is to compare adoptive and biological siblings
25. Twin Studies- A study in which behavior similarity of identical twins is compared with the behavioral similarity of fraternal twins
26. ZPD- Vygotsky's term for tasks too difficult for children to master alone but that can be mastered with assistance
27. Role Models- A person looked to by others as an example to be imitated
28. Imitation- The action of using someone or something as a model
29. Schemes- In Piaget's theory, actions or mental representations that organize knowledge
30. Accommodation- Piagetian concept of adjusting schemes to fit new information and experiences
31. Assimilation- Piagetian concept of using existing schemes to deal with new information or experiences
32. Motherese- The speech patterns and restricted vocabulary used by parents and caregivers when speaking to very young children
33. Sensitive Periods- A time during infancy where attachment could occur
34. Genotype- A person's genetic heritage; the actual genetic material
35. Phenotype- The way an individuals genotype is expressed in observed and measurable characteristics
36. Neuroscience- The scientific study of the nervous system
37. Epigenetic View- Emphasizes that development is the result of an ongoing, bidirectional, interchange between heredity and the environment
38. Positive Reinforcement (Operant conditioning-rewards)- Desired behavior occurs and is rewarded resulting in increases behavior
39. Negative Reinforcement (Operant conditioning)- individual is put in a fearful state, the desired behavior occurs the negative state is removed (car dinging)
40. Punishment- A penalty that is imposed on somebody for wrong doing
41. Discipline- The practice or methods of teaching and enforcing acceptable patterns of behavior
42. Classical Conditioning- The teaching of a response to a new stimulus by pairing it repeatedly with a stimulus for which there is a biological reflex. (Pavlov's dog)
43. Operant Conditioning- A form of learning that takes place when an instance of spontaneous behavior is either reinforced by a reward or discouraged by punishment
44. Reconstructive Memory- The process of putting information together based on general types of stored knowledge in the absence of a specific memory representation.
45. Egocentrism- The inability to distinguish between one's own perspective and someone else's (preoperational thought)
46. Animism- The belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities and are capable of actions
47. Conservation- In Piaget's theory, awareness that altering an object's or substance's appearance doesn't change it's basic characteristics
48. Object Permanence- The Piagetian term for understanding that objects and events continue to exist, even when they cannot be directly seen, heard of touched
49. IQ- A person's mental age divided by their chronological age multiplied by 100
50. Attachment- A close emotional bond between two people
51. Theory of Mind- Refers to the awareness on one's own mental processes and the mental processes of others
52. Habituation- Decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations of the stimulus
53. Dishabituation-Recovery of a habituated response after a change in stimulation
54. Teratogen- Any agent that can potentially cause birth defects or negatively influence cognitive and behavioral outcomes
55. ID- The part of the psyche that is unconscious and the source of primitive instinctive impulses and drives.
56. Ego- One of three main divisions of the mind, containing consciousness and memory and involved with control, planning, and conforming to reality
57. Superego- The part of the mind that acts as a conscience to the ego, developing moral standards and rules through contact with parents and society
58. Adolescence- Stage of life starting around 10 to 12 years and ending usually between 18 and 22 years; filled with "storm and stress"; transition from childhood to adult hood when an individual begins to develop an identity
59. Sexual Orientation- Who you find attractive, how sexual you are, and if you are sexually active
60. Amygdala- The region of the brain in charge of emotions
61. Prefrontal Cortex- plays a role in the regulation of complex cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functioning
62. Mid-life Crisis- Loss of confidence in middle age
63. Empty Nest Syndrome- A term used to indicate a decrease in marital satisfaction after children leave home
64. Gerontology- scientific study of aging
65. Life Expectancy- The number of years that will probably be lived by the average person born in that particular year
66. Centenarian- 100+ year-old person
67. Ageism- Discrimination directed at age
68. Alzheimer's Disease- A progressive, irreversible brain disorder characterized by a gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and eventually physical function
69. Dementia- Global term for any neurological disorder in which the primary symptom involves deterioration of mental functioning

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