AP Biology Final Review Questions

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Which of the following best demonstrates the unity among all organisms?
A) emergent properties
B) the structure and function of DNA
C) descent with modification
D) matching DNA nucleotide sequences
E) natural selection

B) the structure and function of DNA

Which of the following best describes a model organism?
A) It is well studied, easy to grow, and results are widely applicable.
B) It lends itself to many studies that are useful to beginning students.
C) It is often pictured in textbooks and easy for students to imagine.
D) It is small, inexpensive to raise, and lives a long time.
E) It has been chosen for study by the earliest biologists.

A) It is well studied, easy to grow, and results are widely applicable.

Which of the following are qualities of any good scientific hypothesis?
I. It is testable.
II. It is falsifiable.
III. It produces quantitative data.
IV. It produces results that can be replicated.
A) I only B) II only C) III only D) I and II E) III and IV

D) I and II

When applying the process of science, which of these is tested?
A) a hypothesis
B) a question
C) an observation
D) a result
E) a prediction

E) a prediction

Which branch of biology is concerned with the naming and classifying of organisms?
A) informatics
B) schematic biology
C) evolution
D) genomics
E) taxonomy

E) taxonomy

To understand the chemical basis of inheritance, we must understand the molecular structure of DNA. This is an example of the application of which concept to the study of biology?
A) the cell theory
B) feedback regulation
C) reductionism
D) emergent properties
E) evolution

C) reductionism

Which of the following is an example of qualitative data?
A) The fish swam in a zigzag motion.
B) The contents of the stomach are mixed every 20 seconds.
C) The plant's height is 25 centimeters (cm).
D) The six pairs of robins hatched an average of three chicks.
E) The temperature decreased from 20°C to 15°C.

A) The fish swam in a zigzag motion.

Given the cooperativity of science, which of the following is most likely to result in an investigator being intellectually looked down upon by other scientists?
A) Being found to have falsified or created data to better fit a hypothesis.
B) Doing meticulous experiments that show data that contradict what has been previously reported by the scientific community.
C) Spending most of a lifetime investigating a small and seemingly unimportant organism.
D) Making money as the result of studies in which a new medication is discovered.
E) Getting negative results from the same set of experiments.

A) Being found to have falsified or created data to better fit a hypothesis

Which of these is an example of inductive reasoning?
A) If horses are always found grazing on grass, they can be only herbivores and not omnivores.
B) If protists are all single-celled, then they are incapable of aggregating.
C) Hundreds of individuals of a species have been observed and all are photosynthetic; therefore, the species is photosynthetic.
D) These organisms live in sunny parts of this area so they are able to photosynthesize.
E) If two species are members of the same genus, they are more alike than each of them could be to a different genus.

C) Hundreds of individuals of a species have been observed and all are photosynthetic; therefore, the species is photosynthetic

When the body's blood glucose level rises, the pancreas secretes insulin and, as a result, the blood glucose level declines. When the blood glucose level is low, the pancreas secretes glucagon and, as a result, the blood glucose level rises. Such regulation of the blood glucose level is the result of
A) catalytic feedback.
B) bioinformatic regulation.
C) negative feedback.
D) positive feedback.
E) protein-protein interactions.

C) negative feedback

What coefficients must be placed in the following blanks so that all atoms are accounted for in the products?
C6H12O6 → ____ C2H6O + ____CO2

A) 1; 1 B) 1; 3 C) 3; 1 D) 1; 2 E) 2; 2

E) 2;2

how many electrons does nitrogen have in its valence shell?
A) 14 B) 8 C) 2 D) 5 E) 7

D) 5

What is the difference between covalent bonds and ionic bonds?
A) Covalent bonds are formed between atoms to form molecules; ionic bonds are formed between atoms to form compounds.
B) Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms; ionic bonds involve the electrical attraction between atoms.
C) Covalent bonds involve the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms; ionic bonds involve the sharing of single electrons between atoms.
D) Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms; ionic bonds involve the sharing of protons between atoms.
E) Covalent bonds involve the transfer of electrons between atoms; ionic bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms.

B) Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms; ionic bonds involve the electrical attraction between atoms

In ammonium chloride salt (NH4Cl) the anion is a single chloride ion, Cl. What is the cation of NH4Cl?
A) H3, with a charge of +1
B) NH4, with a charge of +4
C) NH4, with a charge of +1
D) NH, with a charge of +1
E) N, with a charge of +1

C) NH4, with a charge of +1

What results from an unequal sharing of electrons between atoms?
A) an ionic bond
B) a nonpolar covalent bond
C) a polar covalent bond
D) a hydrophobic interaction
E) a hydrogen bond

C) a polar covalent bond

What is the maximum number of covalent bonds an element with atomic number 8 can make with hydrogen?
A) 3 B) 1 C) 6 D) 2 E) 4

D) 2

Which of the following best describes the relationship between the atoms described below?
Atom 1 Atom 2
1 is over 1H 3 is over 1H
A) They are polymers.
B) They each contain 1 neutron.
C) They are isomers.
D) They contain 1 and 3 protons, respectively.
E) They are isotopes.

E) They are isotopes

What element exhibits a chemical behavior most like that of oxygen?
A) sulfur
B) hydrogen
C) carbon
D) nitrogen
E) phosphorus

A) sulfur

Compared with 31P, the radioactive isotope 32P has
A) a different atomic number.
B) one more proton.
C) a different charge.
D) one more neutron.
E) one more electron.

D) one more neutron

Which of the following statements is false?
A) Iron is an example of an element needed by all organisms.
B) Other than some trace elements, animals are mostly made up of the same elements as plants, in similar proportions.
C) Some trace elements are very abundant on Earth.
D) Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen are the most abundant elements of living matter.
E) Virtually all organisms require the same elements in the same quantities.

E) Virtually all organisms require the same elements in the same quantities

How many molecules of glucose (C6H12O6 molecular mass = 180 daltons) would be present in 90 grams of glucose?
A) (90 x 6.02) × 1023
B) (90/180) × 6.02 × 1023
C) (6.02/180) × 1023
D) 90 × 1023
E) (6.02/90) × 1023

B) (90/180) x 6.02 x 1023

A strong acid like HCl
A) both ionizes completely in aqueous solutions and is a strong buffer at low pH.
B) increases the pH when added to an aqueous solution.
C) ionizes completely in an aqueous solution.
D) is a strong buffer at low pH.
E) reacts with strong bases to create a buffered solution.

C) ionizes completely in an aqueous solution

Which of the following solutions would require the greatest amount of base to be added to bring the solution to neutral pH?
A) household bleach at pH 12
B) gastric juice at pH 2
C) vinegar at pH 3
D) tomato juice at pH 4
E) black coffee at pH 5

B) gastric juice at pH 2

A slice of pizza has 500 kcal. If we could burn the pizza and use all the heat to warm a 50-L container of cold water, what would be the approximate increase in the temperature of the water? (Note: A liter of cold water weighs about 1 kg.)
A) 5°C B) 10°C C) 1°C D) 50°C E) 100°C

B) 10 degrees C

Increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations might have what effect on seawater?
A) Seawater will become more acidic, and carbonate concentrations will decrease.
B) There will be no change in the pH of seawater, because carbonate will turn to bicarbonate.
C) Seawater will become more alkaline, and carbonate concentrations will decrease.
D) Seawater will become more acidic, and bicarbonate concentrations will decrease.
E) Seawater will become more acidic, and carbonate concentrations will increase.

A) seawater will become more acidic, and carbonate concentrations will decrease

One mole (mol) of glucose (molecular mass = 180 daltons) is
A) 1 kg of glucose dissolved in 1 L of solution.
B) 180 × 1023 molecules of glucose.
C) both 180 grams of glucose and 6.02 × 1023 molecules of glucose.
D) the largest amount of glucose that can be dissolved in 1 L of solution.
E) 180 kilograms of glucose.

C) both 180 grams of glucose and 6.02 x 1023 molecules of glucose

The slight negative charge at one end of one water molecule is attracted to the slight positive charge of another water molecule. What is this attraction called?
A) a hydrophilic bond
B) a hydrogen bond
C) a covalent bond
D) a van der Waals interaction
E) an ionic bond

B) a hydrogen bond

If a solution has a pH of 7, this means that
A) this is a solution of pure water.
B) the concentration of H+ ions in the water equals the concentration of OH- ions in the water.
C) this is a solution of pure water, and the concentration of H+ ions in the water is 10-7 M.
D) there are no H+ ions in the water.
E) this is a solution of pure water, and the concentration of H+ ions equals the concentration of OH- ions in the water.

B) the concentration of H+ ions in the water equals the concentration of OH- ions in the water

You have two beakers. One contains pure water, the other contains pure methanol (wood alcohol). The covalent bonds of methanol molecules are nonpolar, so there are no hydrogen bonds among methanol molecules. You pour crystals of table salt (NaCl) into each beaker. Predict what will happen.
A) NaCl crystals will dissolve readily in methanol but will not dissolve in water.
B) NaCl crystals will NOT dissolve in either water or methanol.
C) NaCl crystals will dissolve readily in water but will not dissolve in methanol.
D) When the first crystals of NaCl are added to water or to methanol, they will not dissolve; but as more crystals are added, the crystals will begin to dissolve faster and faster.
E) Equal amounts of NaCl crystals will dissolve in both water and methanol.

C) NaCl crystals will dissolve readily in water but will not dissolve in methanol

Amino acids are acids because they always possess which functional group?
A) hydroxyl B) amino C)carboxyl D) carbonyl E) phosphate

C) carboxyl

Which two functional groups are always found in amino acids?
A) hydroxyl and carboxyl
B) ketone and methyl
C) amino and sulfhydryl
D) carboxyl and amino
E) carbonyl and amino

D) carboxyl and amino

How many electron pairs does carbon share in order to complete its valence shell?
A) 1 B) 8 C) 2 D) 4 E) 3

D) 4

Approximately 32 different monomeric carbohydrate subunits are found in various natural polysaccharides. Proteins are composed of 20 different amino acids. DNA and RNA are each synthesized from four nucleotides.

42) Among these biological polymers, which has the least structural variety?
A) DNA B) polysaccharides C)proteins D) RNA

A) DNA

Which of these classes of biological molecules consist of both small molecules and macromolecular polymers?
A) carbohydrates
B) lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids all consist of only macromolecular polymers
C) lipids
D) nucleic acids
E) proteins

A) carbohydrates

The bonding of two amino acid molecules to form a larger molecule requires which of the following?
A) formation of a glycosidic bond
B) addition of a water molecule
C) formation of a hydrogen bond
D) removal of a water molecule
E) both removal of a water molecule and formation of a hydrogen bond

D) removal of a water molecule

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