Reaching Out: Cross-Cultural Interactions

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AP World Chapter 22

Ibn Battuta

Moroccan legal scholar who studied Islamic law. Made a pilgrimage to Mecca. Wrote detailed accounts on his travels. Visited 44 modern countries, and his adventures are written in Marco Polo's books.

1000 to 1500 C.E.

The peoples of the eastern hemisphere traveled, traded, communicated, and interacted more intensely than before. Nomads provided safe roads for travelers.
*Improvement in maritime technology (Indian Ocean and South China Sea)
*More than just goods exchanged (Technology, religion, disease (bubonic plague).
"Global dependance"

Reasons for Long Distance Travel

Trade/Diplomacy/Religion

How did trade work

Bulk supplies: By sea
Luxury goods: Silk roads

Silk Road

Linked together: Eurasia, trans-Sahara.

Sea Lanes

Indian Ocean Sea Lanes:
Asia, India, Arabia, and east Africa.

South China Sea:
China, Japan, Korea, and southeast Asia.

Major trading cities/ports

Attracted many people. If a major trade city/port had a strategic location, good standing, and didn't levy excessive custom fees, it was possible for it to become a major Emporium for long-distance trade networks.

Melaka

Principle clearinghouse of trade in eastern Indian Ocean. Made use of the Strait of Melaka, as well as a safe, welcoming market. Population of 50,000 people.

<Tome Pires>: A Portuguese merchant who reported that more than eighty languages could be heard in the city's streets.

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Not an important fact

Mongol Campaigns (Early & Middle decades of 13th century)

Economic disruption throughout Eurasia, defeating the Song and Abbasid dynasties. Though over time, they forged a political rule based on long-distance trading, thus, they made the silk roads safer.

Marco Polo

A Venetian long-distance traveler, son of Niccolo. One of the first Europeans to visit China. A marvelous conversationalist and storyteller, stayed in Khubilai Khan. While he was returning to Venice, he was captured and made a prisoner of war in the Venice and Genoa conflict. Marco told all of his tales to the prisoners, even the luxury goods. Due to the Polos, many Europeans started visiting China.

Appointed Governor of Yangzhou (trading city).

Khubilai Khan administration

Khubilai Khan and other Mongol rules didn't trust their Chinese subjects, so they usually gave administrative posts to appointed foreigners.

Mongol-Christian Diplomacy

Mongols and western Europeans want a military alliance against Muslims. Pope Innocent IV sent envoys who invited Mongol khans to convert to Christianity and join Europeans against Muslims.
Khans declined, and said that the pope and Europeans should submit to Mongol rule or face destruction.

Mongol-European Diplomacy

Mongol ilkhan of Persia planned to invade Muslim lands in southwest Asia, capture Jerusalem, and crush Islam's political force. They sent Rabban Sauma as an envoy to the pope and European leaders. It was a failure.

Rabban Sauma

A Nestorian Christian priest born in Khanbaliq with Turkish ancestry who was sent as an envoy to the pope and European leaders.

Ghazen

Prevented the possibility of any alliances with Europeans.

Islamic Society

Legal scholars and judges played crucial roles due to the Sharia (prescribed religious observances and social relationships based on the Quran). Increase in demand for Muslims educated in Islamic law due to the establishment of new Islamic states.

Ibn Battuta

Received government positions with ease. He was qadi, and adviser to the sultan of Delhi. Once he sentenced a man to eighty lashes because he drank wine 8 years earlier.
He gave lashings to men who didn't attend Friday prayers.
He provided guidance in relation to Islamic faith.

Islamic Spread

Due to Sufi Mystics and legal scholars.

Sufi Mystics

Visited conquered/converted lands and attempted to bring popularity for Islam. They didn't follow strict doctrine styles like scholars, but emphasized piety and devotion to Allah. They said other traditional deities were manifestations of Allah. Due to their flexible style of conversion, they were not as hated upon like doctrinaire campaigners.

Christian Missionaries

Accompanied crusaders/militants. They attracted converts in large numbers, and Roman Catholic Christianity in those areas was established. They remained minority in lands where crusading conquests diminished. Most converts were Mongols and Chinese people.

John of Montecorvino

An Italian Franciscan who was one of the most active Roman Catholic missionaries in China. He was the first bishop of Khanbaliq, worked to establish Christianity in the society. Created translations of the New Testament and book of Psalms into Turkish (Commonly used in Mongol Court), as well as built many churches in China. Baptized and tought Latin/Roman Catholic Rituals to young Mongol boys (Done to about 6000 individuals). He also converted the great khan.

Attracted very few converts. Due to east Asians containing sophisticated religions, it was difficult to convert them.

Cultural Exchanges

Songs, religious idea,s philosophical views, and scientific knowledge spread by travelers.
*Magnetic compass (China) - High maritime trade.

Crop Spread

Muslims introduced new foods to sub-Saharan Africa.
*Citrus fruits, Asian rice, Cotton (Very luxurious for wealthy, eventually Cotton was the principle textile industry in sub-Saharan Africa).

Sugarcane

Muslims merchants began cultivation of sugar cane. They created refined sugar. Italian entrepreneurs organized sugarcane plantations on Mediterranean islands. Though, these plantations required many slave laborers (Muslim war captives and Africans).

Gunpower Technologies

Helped spread gunpowder techniques from China to Europe. gunpowder weapons (e.g. Chinggis Khan).
*Catapults, Trebuchets - Used to shoot gunpowder bombs into cities.
Reached Europeans due to through Mongol-ruled Russia.

Little ice age (1000 to 1300 CE)

A global climatic change causing temperatures to decline significantly. Cooler temps, shorter growing season, agricultural production declined causing famine/starvation.

Origins of Bubonic Plague

Originated in the Yunnan region of southwest China. "Bacillus" infects rodents, and fleas. Fleas end up spreading it to humans. It left the Yunnan region to China's interior due to Mongol military campaigns. Killed 90% of the Hebei population, 2/3 of China's population.

Spread of Bubonic Plague ("Black Death")

Spread due to Mongols, merchants, and travelers on trade routes. Thriving in oases and trading cities of central Asia (abudance of domesticated animals).

1346) Reached Black Sea ports of Caffa and Tana.
1347) Italian merchants fled plague infected Black Sea ports, unsurprisingly spreading the disease throughout the Mediterranean basin.
1348) Caused epidemics in most of Europe.

Inflamed lymph nodes, buboes(black swellings).
Killed 60 - 70% of its human victims, strong enough to destroy a society (wiping an entire population).

Unaffected sites:
Long cold winters of Scandinavia prevented fleas and rodents from spreading proliferating. As well as India, in fact, it grew in population.

Population decline

China's population dropped severely due to the bubonic plague and Mongols conflicts Europe also fell, in fact, about 25% from 1300-1400.

Europe and China were the quickest to recover; All of the other nations required a long time (Longest was Egypt)

Social/Economic effects of Bubonic

The disease killed people of all social groups, and all ages. It caused labor shortages which caused social unrest.

Urban works demanded higher pay in western Europe, so they left for better conditions. Though, political authorities simply froze their wage levels, and forbade workers to leave their homes.
Landlords restricted peasants to move (peasants wanted to find better wages too).

Thus, many rebellions occurred.

Mongol Yuan dynasty (China)

Due to the population being diminished, factional wards amongst Mongols, and assassinations, the Yuan dynasty fell.

Ming("Brilliant") Dynasty

Due to the fall of the Yuan dynasty, China regained control of their land. The new emperor, Hongwu, came from a poor family. Executed a minister and his bureaucratic allies due to them being suspected of involvement in a treasonous plot.

Hongwu

The first emperor of the Ming dynasty. Was a beggar from a poor family. Entered a Buddhist monastery to receive food, clothing, and shelter.

Ming Centralization (Tightly centralized)

Hongwu eliminated all traces of Mongol rule, and created schools based on traditional Chinese dynasties. Reestablished with the Confucian educational structure as well as a civil service systems to supply talented officials and bureaucrats. Ming emperors ruled directly, containing neither a chief ministers nor advisers.

Mandarins

A special class of powerful officials that make sure local officials are performing their duties.

Eunuchs

Were casatrated, so they couldn't have families or build power bases that could challenge elites. Eunuchs were in high demand in empires.

Manchu invaders

Brought the fall of the Ming dynasty. This dynasty ended up retaining the old traditions of the Ming dynasty.

Ming economic recovery

Rebuilt irrigation systems, agricultural fields; as well as manufactured porcelain, lacquer-ware, silk, and cotton textiles.

Ming cultural recovery

Emperor Hongwu tried to destroy all signs of recent nomadic occupation by discouraging Mongol names and Mongol dress.
As well as the creation of the Yongle Encyclopedia.

Yongle Encyclopedia

Hongwu's successor, Yongle, organized a vast encyclopedia of all significant Chinese history, philosophy, and literature.

Europe recovery

Occurred in a regional type of fashion, not the whole centralized empire. Holy Roman empire lost power to German princes and Italian city states.

Hundreds Years' War (1337 - 1453)

England vs France. A protracted series of intermittent campaigns with warring factions seeking control of lands in France.

Rebuilding of western Europe

Due to the taxing of citizens and subjects providing finance, and as well as the maintenance of large standing armies.

Rebuilding of Italy

Profits from industrial production and trade enriched major cities. These cities required access to military forces to protect their interests.

King Louis XI

The king of France who maintained a permanent army of 15,000 mercenary troops.

Rebuilding in Spain

The most dramatic rebuilding. Fernando and Isabel married in 1469. Sales tax supported their powerful standing army. Conquered and absorbed the kingdom of Granada.

Fernando of Aragon & Isabel of Castile [1469] Catholic Kings

The two wealthiest and most important in the Iberian realms. Sponsored Christopher Columbus's quest for a route to China.

England

Had no standing army, though, able to build in quickly due to their high funds.

Rebuilding in Russia

Russian princes (grand princes of Moscow) expanded territories. They started "gathering the Russian land", which meant acquiring sites surrounding their Moscow commercial town near the Volga river.

Grand Prince Ivan III (1462-1505) Tsar/Czar

Known as "Ivan the great", stopped paying tribute to the Mongol Khan. He thus declared Russian independence from Mongol rule. He added Novgorod to Russia control. His new society was modeled based on the Byzantine empire.

Novgorod

A prosperous trading city obtained by Grand Prince Ivan III. It was part of the Hansa league, as well as a lucrative fur trading city.

Competition between European states

Frequent small-scale wars emerged, thus encouraging the development of military and naval technology.

The Renaissance/"rebirth"

Period of artistic and intellectual creativity that took place from the 14th to 16th century. It reflected the continuing development of a sophisticated urban society.

Painters, sculptures, and architects

Drew inspiration from classical Greek and Roman artists. More convincing realism in creations. Humanists(Renaissance scholars), looked at classical rather than medieval literary models; in fact, they even upgraded medieval creations.

Masaccio and Leonardo da Vinci

Relied on linear perspective to create 3 dimensional drawings on 2 dimensional surfaces.

Donatello and Michelangelo Buonarotti

Depicted subjects in natural poses reflecting actual human muscles in work, instead of awkward poses.

Renaissance Architecture

Designed building in simple, elegant style, similar to their classical Greek and Roman predecessors. Domed buildings were one of their greatest achievements.

Filippo Brunelleschi

Inspired by the Pantheon, Filippo recreated designs for a large dome. Was in charge of construction of the cathedral of Florence.

Humanists

Deeply committed to Christianity, some prepared accurate and translated texts of the New Testament and other important Christian writings. They preferred the classical Greek and Roman authors instead of boring theologians.

Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam

Published the first edition of the Greek New Testament, as well as a revised Latin translation and copious annotations.

Franceso Patrarca/"Petrarch"

Traveled throughout Europe searching for manuscripts of classical works. An example for the need of more Greek/Roman classics.

Humanist Moral Thought

Humanists received inspiration from Cicero, who demonstrated it was possible to lead a morally virtuous life while participating actively in the affairs of the world. Thus humanists enforced an "active society." Thus it attempted to adapt Christianity to the modern Urban commercial society.

Oration on the Dignity of Man

Written by Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, best reflected the enthusiasm of Renaissance scholars to comprehend the world beyond western Europe

Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

Attempted to harmonize the teachings of Aristotle, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Very unsuccessful. He had limited information on these religions, and he also made slight errors referring to doctrines he didn't quite understand.

Zheng He's expeditions (1405 to 1433)

Ming government sponsored seven ambitious naval expeditions designed to establish China's presence in the Indian Ocean basin.
Reasons of expeditions:
1) Impose imperial control over foreign trade with China
2) Impress foreign peoples with the power the Ming dynasty had restored to China.
Also wanted to extend the tributary system.

Zheng He

Leader of the Ming expeditions. He was a Muslim from Yunnan who rose through the ranks of eunuch administrators to become a trusted adviser of Yongle. His nine vessels were nammed "treasure ships".

Zheng He's Voyages

He gave gifts such as Chinese silk throughout his travels, thus allowing him to receive presents from his hosts (Zebra, giraffe, ect.) He saw a monument in Ceylon honoring Buddha, Allah, and Vishnu.

Chinese Naval Power {Zheng He Voyage}

Zheng He suppressed pirates, troubles in Ceylon, and his fleets in Arabia, and east Africa. "walked like a tiger." He brought envoys from 30 states.

End of Zheng He's Voyage

There were arguments in the Ming empire. Confucian ministers mistrusted Zheng He and his eunuchs proclaiming that the voyage is a waste of resources that could be used for agriculture. Also a new military threat near home was emerging, ending his voyage on #7.

Portuguese Expansion

Leaders in Atlantic exploration and the search for a sea route to Asian markets through the Indian Ocean.

Prince Henrique of Portugal/"Henry the Navigator"

Embarked on a mission to spread Christianity and increase Portuguese influence on the seas. Seized the Moroccan city Ceuta. His victory severely weakened Islam and enabled Christian vessels to move freely between the Mediterranean and Atlantic.

Ceuta

The Moroccan city which guarded the Strait of Gibraltar from the south. Destroyed by Henry the Navigator.

Colonization of the Atlantic Islands

Prince Henrique encouraged Portuguese mariners to venture into the Atlantic Ocean. They discovered the Madeiras and Azores Islands which were both inhabited. Unsuccessful in the attempt to occupy the Canary Islands(Castile).

Sugar Cane was cultivated in the islands found by the Portuguese.

Slave Trade

Portuguese went to the west African coast and took advantage of the slaves. Except, they took slaves in high volume, and sending them to new destinations.
Ended up taking thousands of slaves annually. The use of African slaves to perform heavy labor on commercial plantations became common practice.

Bartolomeu Dias

Sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and entered the Indian Ocean. His voyage proved it was possible to sail from Europe to the Indian Ocean, but his crew forced Dias to return back to Portugal immediately.

Vasco da Gama

Wanted to sail to India. Arrived in Calicut, and returned to Lisbon with large amounts of profitable cargo (peppers and spices).

Main controller of Indian Ocean

Portugal, signaled the beginning of European !mperialism in Asia.

Cristoforo Colombo

Thought of the idea to sail west to reach Asian markets. The king of Portugal declined to sponsor his expedition, but the Catholic kings of Spain (Fernando and Isabel) agreed to it.

Went to, NORTH AMERICA!

Notes

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