MicroAnatomy: Respiratory System

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4 parts of the Respiratory Division of the lungs

Respiratory bronchioles, Alveolar ducts, Alveolar sacs, Alveoli

The Air conduction division of the lungs ends at the level of the

Terminal bronchioles.

The core of cilia is composed of

Microtubules

cell types in ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Ciliated columnar cells, Mucous goblet cells, Brush cells, Basal cells, Small granule cell

Small granule cells of the typical respiratory epithelium function as

Local endocrine cells - secreting hormones in a paracrine fashion

Brush cells have numerous __ on their apical surfaces

Microvilli

Brush cells function as

Sensory receptors because afferent nerve fibers contact their basal surfaces

This type of epithelium lines some portions of the conducting division from nasal cavity to larynx

Stratified squamous moist epithelium

The significance of stratified squamous moist epithelium in portions of the conducting system

Protection against air flow due to smoother surface

Smooth muscle is more prominent in what part of the lungs?

End of bronchioles

Squamous metaplasia is the term for

Squamification (a word?) of the ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium. Occurs in smokers

This change in epithelial type is reversable

Squamous epithelium

3 types of cells in olfactory epithelium

Olfactory cells (bipolar neurons), Supporting cells (ciliated), basal cells

Olfactory cells are replaced

throughout life

The lamina propria of the nasal cavity contains

Rich capillary network, large venous plexuses (swell bodies), glands (2 types)

Two types of glands in the nasal cavity lamina propria

Seromucous, Serous glands (Bowman's glands)

The purpose of the glands in the nasal cavity is to

break down substances for better activation of olfactory neurons

Nasopharynx is lined by

Typical respiratory epithelium

The vestibule of the nasal cavity is lined with (transition from...to...)

Keratinized epithelium transitioning to typical respiratory epithelium

Vibrassae are located in

the nasal vestibule

Sebaceous and sweat glands are located in (this part of the Respiratory system)

the first part of the nasal cavity's vestibule

3 conchae (turbinate bones) are located in

Each of the 2 nasal fossae

The larynx connects...

the pharynx to the trachea

Vocal cords are located in the

larynx

Upper vocal cords are known as the

false vocal cords

The lower vocal cords are known as the

true vocal cords

What epithelium covers the true vocal cords?

Moist squamous epithelium

What epithelium covers the larynx?

It depends on the location within: true vocal cords and epiglottis are covered by stratified squamous epithelium, but typical respiratory epithelium covers the fast vocal cords and the remainder of the larynx

Purpose of the epiglottis

more turbulance

Intrinsic muscles of the larynx have this purpose

Help to change the diameter of the larynx, which is narrowed for increased velocity when coughing

The first signs of alveoli/gas exchange are in this part of the lungs

the respiratory bronchioles

Cells of the respiratory bronchioles

Few ciliated cells, some Clara cells

Epithelium of alveolar ducts

Simple squamous epithelium, mostly Type I alveolar cells, occasional type II alveolar cells

In the alveolar ducts, smooth muscle is located only

around the rim of the alveoli

Primary CT support of alveolar sacs

elastic and reticular fibers

Surfactant of lungs has these 2 fluid layers

Aqueous proteinaceous hypophase covered by phospholipid monolayer

Without surfactant, alveoli would

collapse

Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome is...

Associated with premature birth. Leading cause of death in premies, Alveoli are collapsed due to deficiency of surfactant

The interalveolar septa contain...

capillaries, LCT with elastic, reticular and collagen fibers, fibroblasts and various leukocytes including Macrophages

When hemoglobin breaks down and alveolar macrophages are filled with hemosiderin, the macrophages are called

heart failure cells

The richest capillary network in the body is found in the

interalveolar septum

Macrophage function in the lungs is impaired by

Smoking, Viral infections, Ethanol ingestion

The blood air barrier has these three components

Alveolar type I cells, fused (tight junctions) basal lamina of alveolar and endothelial cells, endothelial cells

Alveolar pores are a.k.a.

pores of Kuhn

Purpose of alveolar pores/pores of Kuhn

equalize pressure between neighboring alveoli, collateral air circulation when bronchiole obstructed, (means for spread of infections)

2 vascular supplies of the lungs

one is nutritional and one for gas exchange...these combine at deep levels

Characteristic of pulmonary arteries:

thin walls due to low pressure

Three types of neural innervation to respiratory system

Parasympathetic (Vagus nerve), Sympathetic and Sensory

Sympathetic system functions to __ bronchii and bronchioles

Dilate

Parasympathetic system functions to __ bronchi and bronchioles

Constrict

Bronchial vessels supply

nutrients to the larger airways

Bronchial vessels branch from the

aorta

Pleural fibers are...

collagen and elastic fibers

Fluid between the pleura is like

pulmonary surfactant

Pleura tissue

simple squamous epithelium (mesothelium) and thin layer of CT with lots of capillaries and lymph vessels

Pulmonary veins are found in the

parynchema, away from the airways, venules enter the interlobular septum and follow bronchial tree to the hilum

The order in which pulmonary defense mechanisms kick in

Vibrassae in nasal passages; Mucociliary transport in trachea, bronchioles; Alveolar macrophages, Lymphoid tissue

Non-motile cilia can be a result of

Kartagener syndrome (dynein deficiency)

Without functioning cilia,...

poor clearing of lungs, congestion, pooling of mucous, lowered gas exchange

Pulmonary emboli obstruct...

pulmonary artery or branch...no blood flows to alveoli

Lysosomes in phagosomes are called

phagolysosomes

A phagolysosome is the result of

when a cell can't break down material and it is held in the lysosome of the macrophage

Basal cells are

undifferentiated short cells. They Don't touch the lumen surface

Bowman's glands are located...

under the olfactory epithelium

what helps to keep food and fluid out larynx

laryngeal cartilages with some hyaline and some elastic

Seromucous glands of the trachea are found mostly

between the cartilagenous rings

Trachealis muscle is...

the smooth muscle at the back of the cartilage rings of the trachea.

Contraction of what muscle in the lungs is part of the cough reflex

trachealis

ligaments of the trachea connecting the cartilage rings are predominately

Fibroelastic ligaments

Lymphocytes and lymphatic nodules are located particularly

at the branching points of the bronchi

Clara cells are found where?

Terminal bronchioles.

Neuroepithelial bodies are

groups of cells with secretory granules associated with cholinergic nerve terminals. (Believed to be chemoreceptors, similar to brush cells). Found in normal bronchial epithelium

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