The Babylonian Captivity
Period of papal residence in Avignon
Established a strong monarchy
Joan of Arc
United France against England in the Hundred Years' War
Defender of the Faith
Declared that the Pope had no power over worldly rulers
Helped legitimize vernacular languages
Established rules and training for skilled workers
Individual control of land, labor and capital
Controlled trade on the Baltic and North Seas
Captured the Holy Land
Manufacture of products in individual homes
Pope Urban II called on Europeans to join a Crusade against
The domestic system meant that
Workers made part of a product in their homes
Science of the Middle Ages focused on
Religion more than theory
The War of the Roses
Determined the ruler of England
Pope Boniface VIII and Philip IV fought over
Taxation of the clergy
Universities of the Middle Ages first formed to
Protect the rights of teachers and students
Europeans were in control of Constantinople at the end of
The Fourth Crusade
Early merchants sold their goods
A barter economy
Exchanges goods and services
The decline in medieval trade was caused by
The Manorial system
Medieval merchants were able to finance their work through
Gathering partners to invest
The most important purpose of early banks
A united Spain
Ordered all non-Chrisitians out of the country
During the Hundred Years' War, the French and English monarchy
The main style of architecture during the middle to later Middle Ages was
Town charters DID NOT grant
How did townspeople gain rights?
Increased trade gave them income separate from the manor
Craft guilds set rules for
How did the rise of guilds affect the social structure of the Middle Ages?
It created a middle class
Vernacular literature is
Literature written in the language people spoke
What effect did vernacular literature have on culture?
Vernacular literature established languages and made literature accessible
John Wycliffe wanted to
Limit papal authority by enabling common people to read the Bible
What did John Wycliffe and the authors of Defender of the Faith have in common?
Both wanted to limit church authority
The Hapsburgs gained power and the imperial throne through
Marriage and accumulated land
How did the Holy Roman Emperor's powers compare to other monarchs?
He lacked the power base of united states
The Hundred Years' War began because
England claimed the French throne
What changes made fighting in the Hundred Years' War different?
Introduction of the longbow and gunpowder
The Hanseatic League was a group of
German trading cities
How did the Hanseatic League maintain control of its partners?
Established strict rules and punishments
The Black Death was spread by
Flea infested rats
What effect did the Black Death have on the working class?
With fewer workers, wages increased
The Great Schism is the period when
The church maintained several popes at once
What effect did the Great Schism have on the church?
It lessened church authority
The Turks were defeated by Crusaders at Jerusalem because
They could not remain united
What positive result came from the European occupation of Jerusalem?
Contact with a more advanced culture