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The Babylonian Captivity

Period of papal residence in Avignon

Louis XI

Established a strong monarchy

Joan of Arc

United France against England in the Hundred Years' War

Defender of the Faith

Declared that the Pope had no power over worldly rulers

Geoffrey Chaucer

Helped legitimize vernacular languages

Craft guild

Established rules and training for skilled workers

Market economy

Individual control of land, labor and capital

Hanseatic League

Controlled trade on the Baltic and North Seas

Seljuq Turks

Captured the Holy Land

Domestic system

Manufacture of products in individual homes

Pope Urban II called on Europeans to join a Crusade against

Seljuq Turks

The domestic system meant that

Workers made part of a product in their homes

Science of the Middle Ages focused on

Religion more than theory

The War of the Roses

Determined the ruler of England

Pope Boniface VIII and Philip IV fought over

Taxation of the clergy

Universities of the Middle Ages first formed to

Protect the rights of teachers and students

Europeans were in control of Constantinople at the end of

The Fourth Crusade

Early merchants sold their goods

At fairs

A barter economy

Exchanges goods and services

The decline in medieval trade was caused by

The Manorial system

Medieval merchants were able to finance their work through

Gathering partners to invest

The most important purpose of early banks

Money lending

A united Spain

Ordered all non-Chrisitians out of the country

During the Hundred Years' War, the French and English monarchy

Became weaker

The main style of architecture during the middle to later Middle Ages was

Gothic

Town charters DID NOT grant

Religious choice

How did townspeople gain rights?

Increased trade gave them income separate from the manor

Craft guilds set rules for

Skilled workers

How did the rise of guilds affect the social structure of the Middle Ages?

It created a middle class

Vernacular literature is

Literature written in the language people spoke

What effect did vernacular literature have on culture?

Vernacular literature established languages and made literature accessible

John Wycliffe wanted to

Limit papal authority by enabling common people to read the Bible

What did John Wycliffe and the authors of Defender of the Faith have in common?

Both wanted to limit church authority

The Hapsburgs gained power and the imperial throne through

Marriage and accumulated land

How did the Holy Roman Emperor's powers compare to other monarchs?

He lacked the power base of united states

The Hundred Years' War began because

England claimed the French throne

What changes made fighting in the Hundred Years' War different?

Introduction of the longbow and gunpowder

The Hanseatic League was a group of

German trading cities

How did the Hanseatic League maintain control of its partners?

Established strict rules and punishments

The Black Death was spread by

Flea infested rats

What effect did the Black Death have on the working class?

With fewer workers, wages increased

The Great Schism is the period when

The church maintained several popes at once

What effect did the Great Schism have on the church?

It lessened church authority

The Turks were defeated by Crusaders at Jerusalem because

They could not remain united

What positive result came from the European occupation of Jerusalem?

Contact with a more advanced culture

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