Hamilton's Financial Plan
Plan to make US financially healthy. US governments took over state government debts, created a national bank and raised tariffs to promote US industry
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court appointed by John Adams, created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many early decisions that gave the federal government more power, especially the supreme court
Was made up by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Judith Sargent Murray
well-educated daughter of wealthy massachusetts merchant. Wrote "On Equality of the Sexes". She argued men and woman had an equal capacity for memory and women had a superior imagination. She concluded that most women were inferior to men in judgement and reasoning, but only bc they had not been trained.
Washington's Farewell Address
speech that warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
Alien and Sedition Acts
acts passed by federalists giving the government power to imprison or deport foreign citizens and prosecute critics of the government
Virginia and Kentucky Resolves
by Jefferson and Madison, opposed the Alien and Sedition acts and argued the Federal government had no right to exercise powers not specifically delegated to it; states could decide constitutionality
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a "revolution." also first peaceful change of political parties, proved success of political system
Beginning in 1804, electors would vote separately for President and Vice President
A major influece of the Latin American revolutions because of its successfulness; the only successful slave revolt in history; it is led by Toussaint L'Ouverture.
A planned slave rebellion in Richmond. The plan leaked out just before the march, and authorities rounded up the participants and executed thirty-five of them, including the leader.
Marbury vs. Madison
Case in which the supreme court first asserted th power of Judicial review in finding that the congressional statue expanding the court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional
The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.
the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional
Fletcher vs Peck
John Marshall ruled against a state legislature that invalidated corrupt land sales in order to protect property rights. example of federal law overpowering state law
agreement between the United States and Spain that changed Florida's border and made it easier for American ships to use the port of New Orleans
Lewis and Clark
Sent on an expedition by Jefferson to gather information on the United States' new land and map a route to the Pacific. They kept very careful maps and records of this new land acquired from the Louisiana Purchase.
war about issue of the Barbary pirates' demand of tribute from American merchant vessels in the Mediterranean Sea.
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
a government order imposing a trade barrier
Macon's Bill #2
opened trade with britain and france, said if either nation repealed its restrictions on neutral shipping the US would halt trade with the other, didn't work
War of 1812
a war between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France
Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. End of the Federalist party
Democracy in America by Tocqueville
written about American social system, criticizing slavery and inequality, predicting conflict over abolition of slavery
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.
industrial revolution centered on factories producing cotton textiles with water-powered spinning and weaving machinery
Poor farmers in North Carolina and elsewhere who occupied land and raised crops without gaining legal title to the soil
treaty between Spain and US that gave Florida to the US
invented the cotton gin
The seventh President of the United States, who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans. As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
uniform pieces that can be made in large quantities to replace other identical pieces
textile mill located in a factory town in Massachusetts that employed farm girls who lived in company-owned boardinghouses
First Wave of Immigration
Major immigration to America from Europe, especially Catholic Irish and Germans. Irish generally stayed on the East Coast, and worked in low paying, menial factories, where they were treated awfully. Germans tended to head West because they had more money and were looking to start a new life. Germans were mostly just men while the Irish came in families. It helped start the Industrial Revolution and led to Nativism.
a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
Dartmouth vs. Woodward
US Supreme Court upheld the original charter of the college against NH's attempt to alter the board of trustees; set precedent of support of contracts against state interference
Gibbons vs. Ogden
supreme court decision that ruled that the constitution gave control of interstate commerce to the U.S. Congress, not the individual states through which a route passed.
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, made Dred Scott decision
the belief that the United States was destined to stretch across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
United States writer and leading exponent of transcendentalism
a belief in the importance of the individual and the virtue of self-reliance and personal independence
Book written by Thoreau in which he wrote about his experiences while living alone on Walden Pond
transcendentalist, who believed in civil disobedience (not paying taxes), jailed
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
Held many revivals during Second Great Awakening, warned of Hell, offered salvation.
Cult of Domesticity
the idea that the ideal woman was a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house
self made man
idea that those who achieved success in America did so not as a result of hereditary privilege or government favoritism, but through their own intelligence and hard work
universal male suffrage
The extension of the right to vote to all males regardless of social standing or race, whose movement had begun in the early-mid 1800's
Alexis de Tocqueville
He wrote a two-volume Democracy in America that contained insights and pinpointed the general equality among people but criticized slavery
an economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power.
Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." Outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points. Died before it was passed however.
John C. Calhoun
19th century politician, SC state senator. Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
The program for building roads, canals, bridges, and railroads in and between the states. There was a dispute over whether the federal government should fund internal improvements, since it was not specifically given that power by the Constitution.
2nd Bank of United States
It was a federal establishment operated by the gov't as an attempt to save the welfare of the economy after the War of 1812. It was part of Henry Clay's American System and forced state banks to call in their loans which led to foreclosures and the Panic of 1819.
McCollough vs. Maryland
1819 John Marshall supreme court case that established federal supremacy over the states
Era of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
5th President of the United States, Era of Good Feelings, Monroe Doctrine
Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30' within the Louisiana Territory (1820)
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
corrupt bargain (election of 1824)
Clay makes a supposed deal with Adams. Adams would be president if Clay would drop out; Clay garners support in the House of Representatives for Adams, when Adams wins he gives Clay the position of Secretary of State.
Martin van Buren
served as secretary of state during Andrew Jackson's first term, vice president during Jackson's second term, and won the presidency in 1836
Election of 1828
Andrew Jackson defeats John Quincy Adams, 178 electoral college votes to 83 electoral college votes; marks the first success of the new national party system
Age of Jackson
time period that increases white male suffrage, democracy, campaigning , and introduces spoil system and national conventions. named after President
Famous American politician and orator. he advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union.
Jackson's Kitchen Cabinet
Informal friends who advise in jackson's political and govermental decisions
Whigs Tariff of Abominations
A sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by the Ordinance of Nullification, an attempt by the state of South Carolina to nullify a federal law - the tariff of 1828 - passed by the United States Congress.
Exposition and Protest
document secretly written by Vice President John Calhoun in support of nullification; calling on compact theory, he argued the tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional and that South Carolina could lawfully refuse to collect it.
Jackson's response to South Carolina's nullification of the Tariff of 1832; enabled him to make South Carolina comply through force; Henry Clay reworked the tariff so that South Carolina would accept it, but after accepting it, South Carolina also nullified it
Indian Removal Act 1830
removed indians from southern states and put them on reservations in the midwest
Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia
1831 supreme court case, determined that while the Cherokee people were an independent nation, they were still a "denominated domestic dependent nation". Denied an injunction brought forth by the tribe to null and void all laws enforced by Georgia over the tribe.
Worchester vs. Georgia
supreme Court case ruling that the Cherokee Nation was a distinct territory over which only the federal government, not the states, had authority; largely ignored by Andrew Jackson and the state of Georgia
The Bank War
Jackson's attempt to destroy the 2nd Bank of the US, because he saw it as a monopoly and vetoed its charter in 1832
President of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it.
a vote that blocks a decision
Panic of 1837
financial crisis after end of 2nd BUS, caused by inflation, followed by 5 year depression
issued by President Jackson in 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
Election of 1840
This election was characterized by the attacks or insults on each others reputation. William Henry Harrison wins election over Van Buren. first whig president
William Henry Harrison
was an American military leader, politician, the 9th President of the United States, and the first President to die in office
elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died, President responsible for annexation of Mexico after receiving mandate from Polk, opposed many parts of the Whig program for economic recovery
Washington objected to this French ministers plan to hire American Privateers to fight on the high seas for France and against England.