AP World History: First Semester Test Review

115 terms by iSiennaSaechao 

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Prehistory

period before invention of writing

Homo erectus

"upright-walking human" ; used cleavers and hand axes and learned how to control fire

Development of Language

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Paleolithic & Neolithic Era

Paleolithic - "Old Stone Age" ; a long period of human development before the devlopment of agriculture
Neolithic - "New Stone Age" ; marked by the discovery and mastery of agriculture

Mesopotamia

"between the rivers" ; Sumer and Akkad are two of the earliest societies

Sumer

earliest Mesopotamian societies

Sargon of Akkad

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Hammurabi

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Cuneiform

written language of the Sumerians ; probably first written script in the world

Alphabet

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Old, Middle, and New Kingdom

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Amon-Re

Egyptian god ; combination of the sun god Re and the air god Amon

Akhenaten

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Osiris

Ancient Egyptian god the represent the forces of nature

Bantu

African peoples that began a centuries long migration that took them to most of sub-Saharan Africa ; influential linguistically

Mohenjo-Daro

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Harappa

early brilliant Indian society centered in Harappa and Monhenjo-daro

Aryan

European migrants who settled in India after their union with indigenous Dravidians formed the basis of Hinduism

Varnas

Hindu word for caste

Sati

Indian practice for a widow throwing herself on the funeral pyre of her husband

Samsara

Hindu term for the concept of transmigration ; the soul passing into a new incarnation

River Valley Civilizations

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Mandate of Heaven

Chinese belief that the emperors ruled through the mandate, or approval, of heaven contingent on their ability to look after the welfare of the population

Shang Dynasty

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Olmec & Maya

Olmec - early Mesoamerican society that later influenced later Maya
Maya - central American society known for math, astronomy, and a sophisticated written language

Yahweh

God of the monotheistic religion of Judaism that influenced later Christianity and Islam

Zhou Dynasty

Chinese dynasty that was the foundation of Chinese thought formed during period of Confucianism, Daoism, and Zhou Classics

Empires After Alexander

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Qanat

Persian underground canal

Persepolis

Greek city-state

Alexander the Great

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Satrapies

Persian administrators, usually members of royal family, who governed a satrapy

Chandragupta

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Ashoka

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Mauryan & Gupta Dynasty

Mauryan - Indian dynasty founded by Chandragupta Maurya and reaching its peak under Ashoka
Gupta - Indian dynasty that briefly reunited India after the collapse of the earlier Mauryan dynasty

Bhagavad Gita

"Song of the Lord" ; and Indian short poetic work drawn from the lengthy Mahabharata that expressed basic Hindu concepts such as karma and dharma

Siddhartha Gautama

Indian kshatriya who achieved enlightenment and became known as the Buddha, the founder of Buddhism

Darius

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Persian War

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Hellenism

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Qin Shihuangdi

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Yellow Turban Uprising

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Analects

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Han Wudi

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Monsoons

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Ahimsa

Jain term for the principal of nonviolence to other living things or their souls

Four Noble Truths

foundation of Buddhist though:
1) life is pain
2)pain is caused by desire
3) elimintation of desire will bring an end to pain
4)living a life based on the Noble Eightfold Path will eliminate desire

Polis

Greek term for city-state

Tyrant

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Delian League

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Socrates

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Plato & The Republic

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Consuls

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Julius Caesar

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Twelve Tables

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Jesus of Nazareth

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Paul of Tarsus

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Constantinople

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Byzantine Empire

long-lasting empire centered at Constantinople; grew out of the end of the Roman empire, carried the legacy of Roman greatness and was the only classical society to survive into the early modern age; it reached its early peak during the reign of Justinian

Muhammad

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Dar al-Islam

"house of Islam" ; term for the Islamic world

Umayyad

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Five Pillars of Islam

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Meleka

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Junks & Dhows

Indian, Persian, and Arab ships; weighed one hundred to four hundred tons that sailed and traded throughout the Indian Ocean basin

Harsha

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Equal-Field System

Chinese system during the Tang dynasty in which the goal was to ensure an equitable distribution of land

Fast-Ripening System

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Gran Canal

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Tang & Song Dynasty

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Shogun

Japanese military leader who ruled in place of the emperor

Sunni vs. Shia

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Jizya

tax in Islamic empires that was imposed on non-Muslims

Madrasas

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Sui Yangdi

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Indian Emporia

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Hagia Sophia

massive Christian church constructed by the Byzantine emperor Justinian and later converted into a mosque

Justinian

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Feudalism

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Griots

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Swahili City-States

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Zimbabwe

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Sundiata

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Mansa Musa

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Hanseatic League

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Three Esates

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Scholasticism

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Virgin Mary

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Otto I

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First Crusade

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Wiliam of Normandy

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Dominicans & Franciscans

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Aztec Empire

Central American empire constructed by the Mexica and expanded during the reigns of Itzcoatl and Montecuzoma I

Mexica Society

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Chinampa

used by Aztecs ; fertile muck from the lake bottoms was dredged and built up into small plots

Aztec Sacrifice

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Calpulli

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Mahmud

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Chinggis & Khubilai Khan

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Mongol Empires

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Tamerlane

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Mehmed II

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St. Thomas Aquinas

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Idn Battuta

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Marco Polo

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Hongwu

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Reconquista

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Zheng He

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