Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Fixed Interval Schedule

A schedule of reinforcement in which a specific amount of time must elapse before a response will elicit reinforcement.

Primary Reinforcer

A stimulus, such as food or water that is naturally rewarding and satisfying and requires no learning on the part of the subject to become pleasurable.

Secondary Reinforcers

A stimulus such as money that becomes rewarding through its link with a primary reinforcer.

Fixed-Ratio Schedule

A schedule of reinforcement in which a specific number of correct responses is required before reinforcement can be obtained.

Operant Conditioning

A form of learning in which a certain action is reinforced or punished, resulting in corresponding increases or decreases in the likelihood that similar actions will occur again.

Discrimination

The ability to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli.

Variable-Interval Schedule

A schedule of reinforcement in which changing amounts of time must elapse before a response will obtain reinforcement.

Classical Conditioning

A learning procedure in which associations are made between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus.

Generalization

In classical conditioning, the tendency for a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response.

Feedback

Information received after an action as to its effectiveness or correctness.

Extinction

In classical conditioning, the gradual disappearance of a conditioned response because the reinforcement is withheld or because the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus.

Shaping

Technique of operant conditioning in which the desired behavior is molded by first rewarding any act similar to that behavior and then requiring ever-closer approximations to the desired behavior before giving the reward.

Latent Learning

Learning that is not demonstrated by an immediate, observable change in behavior.

Negative Reinforcement

When a perceived unpleasant stimulus is removed or not applied (subtracted) after a behavior, thus increasing the likelihood of that behavior happening again.

Learning

A relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience.

Positive Reinforcement

When a perceived pleasant stimulus is given/received (added) after a behavior, thus increasing the likelihood of that behavior happening again.

Variable-Ratio Schedule

A schedule of reinforcement in which an unpredictable number of responses is required before reinforcement can be obtained each time.

Learned Laziness

When a person over time receives rewards without effort they learn they do not have to work hard.

Learned Helplessness

A condition in which repeated attempts to control or influence a situation fail, resulting in the belief that the situation is uncontrollable and that any effort to cope will fail.

Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)

An event that elicits a certain predictable response without previous training.

Unconditioned Response (UCR)

An organism's automatic (or natural) reaction to a stimulus.

Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

A once-neutral event that elicits a given response after a period of training in which it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus.

Conditioned Response (CR)

A response elicited by the conditioned stimulus; it is similar to the unconditioned response, but not identical in magnitude or amount.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set