What food is unusually rich in thiamine?
Pork chop, lean/ Soy Milk/ Squash, acorn
Exposure to this leads to destruction of thiamine.
Antithiamine factor - shellfish, most freshwater fish, and tea, Can destroy up to 50% of the thiamin
Deficiency of this vitamin is induced by eating raw egg white.
B7 - Biotin
Two of the most common symptoms of B vitamin deficiencies are:
Glossitis - inflammation of the tounge, and Cheilosis - a condition of reddened lips with cracks at corners of the mouth.
A good source of vitamin C that is non-citrus would be?
Potato or sweet potato
Vitamin C is required for the synthesis of this substance:
Collagen (strengthens blood vessel walls, forms scar tissue, provides matrix for bone growth)
Which of the vitamins would be removed in the production of skim milk?
What is the primary excretory route of the water soluble vitamins?
All the 'shins'
Toxicity from this vitamin is known to cause irreversible nerve damage.
when are deficiencies of vitamin K most likely to occur?
whenever fat absorption falters, or some drugs disrupt vitamin K's synthesis and action in the body
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome may be treated with supplements of what vitamin?
Thiamin - B1
Alacholics often exhibit deficiencies of __________?
Thiamin - B1
Beriberi results from a deficiency of __________?
Thiamin - B1
the cheif function of the B vitamins is:
to serve as coenzymes that facilitate the work of every cell
When B vitamins are consumed in excess of needs what happens to the excess:
the cells dispatch water-soluble vitamins to the urine for excreation
The coenzyme FAD is Formed from what B vitamin.
Riboflavin - B2
the sings and symtopms of Pellagra include what:
three D's: Dermatitis (flaky paint), Diarrehia, and Dimentia (short term memory loss)
Tryptophan can be used to synthesize __________ in the body.
Pantothenic acid helps form __________ used in energy __________.
Coenzyme A, Replacement
Which B vitamin when taken excess can cause liver damage and peptic ulcers.
Niacin - B3
Neural tube defects are caused by a deficiency of __________?
Folate - B9
What are two common neural tube defects?
Spina bifida and Anencephaly
Regular use of antacids can adversely affect the utilization of what B vitamins?
Folate - B9
What is a free radical?
an atom or group of atoms with at least one unpaired electron
What vitamins can help prevent free radical damage?
Vitamin C and vitamin E
What are symptoms of early sign vitamin C deficiency?
gums bleed easily around the teeth and capillaries under the skin break spontaneously.
If the diet contains precursor vitamin A, which of the following tissues can use it to form vitamin A?
Why is vitamin D not considered a vitamin?
The body can synthesize it , with help from sunlight, from a precurser that the body makes from cholesterol. Therefore, vitamin D is not an essential nutrient given enough time in the sun, people need no vitamin D from foods
Which type of vitamin A is active in the visual response?
an outward sign of too much beta carotene would be?
Discoloration of the skin
what fat soluable vitamin is considered to be the most powerful natural antioxidant?
Keratinization is the result of a toxicity of :
Vitamin A supplements might be helpful in treating:
premature abortions, Impaired growth of small children
the vitamin D deficiency in Adults? in children?
Osteoporosis in adults and rickets in children
Water that lies between body cells is known as __________ fluid.
what type of drinking water contains the least amount of minerals?
habitual intakes of soft water is most likely to aggrivate
hypertension and heart disease
what is the greatest source of sodium in the diet?
what organ is the chief regulator of acid-base balence in the body?
Hyponatremia refers to low blood concentrations of:
why is a potassium deficiency often misdiagnosed initially as a heart attack?
increase in blood pressure, irregular heartbeats, muscle weakness and glucose intolerance
what is a major source of dietary sulfur?
all protein containing foods
how does magnesium function in energy metoblism?
acts as a catalyst in the reaction that adds the last phosphate to high energy compound ATP
what are some risks for the development of osteoporosis?
its hard to determine if you have it and it can make your bones brittle
the strongest predictor for loss of bone density is __________?
what is contaminated iron?
iron found in foods as the result of contamination by inorganic iron salts from the iron cookware, iron-containing soils, and the like.
what is MFP factor
a peptide released during the digestion of Meat, Fish, and Poultry that enhances nonheme iron absorption
part of hemoglobin and myoglobin and only found in animal based foods such as meat, fish and poultry
what is pica
a craving for nonfood substance
abnormal increase of iron in blood
what is anemia
a deficiency of red blood cells
what is a common side effect of taking iron supplements?
what is a goiter and what causes the development of them
enlarged thyroid and is caused by iodine deficiencies
what mineral is critical to the synthesis of thyroxine?
deficiency of which mineral is associated with the physical and sexual retardation of children?
a pregnant woman with a severe iodine deficincy may give birth to a child with:
mental and physical retardation in infants
what type of meat would be the best source of copper?
copper is involved in reactions that consume_________.
what mineral can function as vitamin E?
What is Keshan's disease?
Keshan's disease is a condition which occurs when there is a deficiency of selenium intake. It is named for the region in China where it was first discovered in the children and young women of the area, where the soil is deficient in selenium. Keshan's disease causes an abnormality of the heart muscles that causes it to function abnormally.
what is the most common cause of manganese toxicity?
an enviroment contaminated with manganese rather than dietary intake. miners for example
how does fluride help control tooth decay?
read page 460
a toxicity of floride causes:
flurosis (pitting and discoloration of teeth)
chronium deficiency is characterized by:
diabeties like condition
what hormone is dependent of chromium for optimal activity?
most minerals can be found in what foods
smokers should be especially careful to consume what mineral?