Praxis II (0041/0049) Language and Linguistics

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phonetics

the study of sounds of language and their physical properties

phonology

the analysis of how sounds function in a language or dialect

morphology

the study of the structure of words

semantics

the study of the meaning in language

syntax

the study of the structure of sentences

pragmatics

the role of context in the interpretation of meaning

Sociolinguistics

the study of language as it relates to society, including race, class, gender, and age

Ethnolinguistics

the study of language as it relates to culture, frequently associated with minority linguistic groups within the larger culture

linguistics

the formal study of the structures and processes of a language

dialect

a variation of a language used by people who live in a particular geographical area

Psycholinguistics

the study of language as it relates to the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to learn language

Anglo-Saxon

English is derived from this language; a dialect of West Germanic

etymology

the study of the history and origin of words

ambiguity

two or more possible meanings to a word or phrase

euphemism

a socially accepted word or phrase to replace unacceptable language, such as expressions for bodily functions or body parts; example: "passed away"

doublespeak

language that is intended to be evasive or to conceal; example: downsized

jargon

specialized language of a particular group or culture

declarative

sentences makes a statement and tells about a person, place, thing, or idea

interrogative

sentence asks a question

imperative

sentences that issues a command

exclamatory

sentence communicates strong ideas or feelings

conditional

sentences expresses wishes or conditions contrary to fact

simple

sentence can have a single subject or a compound subject and a single predicate or a compound predicate

compound

sentence made up of two independent clauses; the clauses must be joined by a semi-colon or by a comma and a coordinating conjuction

complex

sentence has one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses

compound/complex

sentence has two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses

common nouns

do not name specific people, places, or things

proper nouns

names particular people, places, or things

concrete nouns

names a thing that is tangible (can be seen, heard, touched, smelled, or tasted)

abstract noun

names an idea, condition, or feeling

collective noun

names a group or unit

singular

number of nouns, equal or less than one

plural

number of nouns, equal or more than two

nominative case noun

can be the subject of the clause or the predicate noun when it follows the verb be

possessive case noun

shows possession or ownership

objective case noun

can be a direct, an indirect object, or an object of a preposition

transitive verb

takes directs objects--words or word groups that complete the meaning of a verb by naming a receiver of the action

intransitive verb

takes no objects or complements

linking verb

connects the subject and the subject complement (an adjective, noun, or noun equivalent); example: It WAS rainy.

helping verb

comes before another verb; She MUST HAVE passed the Praxis II exam.

present tense

used to describe situations that exist in the present time

past tense

used to tell about what happened in the past

future tense

used to express action that will take place in the future

present perfect

used when the action began in the past but continues into the present

past perfect

used to express action that began in the past and happened prior to another past action

future perfect

used to express action that will be begin in the future and will be completed in the future

infinitive phrase

usually made up of TO and the base form of a verb; example: TO ORDER or TO ABANDON

participle

verb form that usually ends in -ing or -ed

gerund

made up of a present participle (a verb ending in -ing) and always functions as a noun

antecedent

noun to which a pronoun refers: example: HE (antecedent) JIMMY (pronoun)

personal pronoun

takes the place of nouns

relative pronoun

relate adjective clauses to the nouns or pronouns they modify

indefinite pronoun

refer to an unnamed or unknown people or things

interrogative pronoun

asks questions

demonstrative pronoun

points out people, places, or things without naming them

modifier

words, clauses, or phrases that limit or describe other words or groups of words

adverbs

describes four different things: time, place, manner, degree

phrases

groups of related words that operate as a single part of speech, such as a verb, verbal, prepositional, appositive, or absolute

clauses

groups of related words that have both a subject and a predicate

comma

used between two independent clauses, to separate adjectives, to separate contrasted elements, to see off appositives, to separate items in a list, to enclose explanatory words, after an introductory phrase, after an introductory clause, to set off a nonrestrictive phrase, to ensure clarity, in numbers, to enclose titles, in a direct address, to set off dialogue, to set off items in an address, and to set off dates

period

used at the end of a sentence, after initial or abbreviation, or as a decimal point

question mark

used at the end of a direct or indirect question and to show uncertainty

semi-colon

used to separate groups that include commas and to set off independent clauses

exclamation point

used to express strong feeling

apostrophe

used in contractions, to form plurals, to form singular possessives, to form plural possessives, in compound nouns, to show shared possession, and to express time or amount

dash

used for emphasis, to set off interrupted speech, to set off an introductory series, and to indicate a sudden break

parenthesis

used to set off explanatory information and to set off full sentences

brackets

used to set off added words, editorial corrections, and clarifying information

hyphen

used between numbers, between fractions, in a special series, to create new words, and to join numbers

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