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A very very very very very very very very very long Midterm study guide with ALL of the vocab that we've done in Blackwell's class.....Prepare to die people....

observation

using the senses to study the world

data

observations and measurements recorded during an experiment

hypothesis

proposed explanation or answer to an specific question

experiment

process that test a hypothesis by collecting information under controlled conditions

independent variable

condition or factor that is manipulated by a scientist

constant

condition that is controlled so that it does not change during an experiment

dependent variable

experimental data collected through observation and measurement

theory

proposed explanation for a wide variety of observations and experimental results

microscope

tool that provides an enlarged image of an object

gene

specific region of DNA that codes for a particular protein

molecular genetics

study of DNA structure and function on the molecular level

genomics

study and comparison of genomes within a single species or among different species

biotechnology

use and application of living things and biological processes

transgenic

organism whose genome has been altered to contain one or more genes from another organism or species

biosphere

all organisms and the part of Earth where they live

biodiversity

variety of life within an area

species

group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring

biology

scientific study of all forms of life

organism

any individual living thing

cell

basic unit of life

metabolism

all chemical processes that synthesize or break down materials within an organism

DNA

(Deoxyribonucleic acid) molecule that stores information in all organisms

system

changing, organized group of related parts that interact to form a whole

ecosystem

collection of organisms and nonliving things, such as climate, soil, water, and rocks, in an area

homeostasis

regulation and maintenance of constant internal conditions in an organism

evolution

change in a species over time; process of biological change by which descendants come to differ from their ancestors

adaptation

inherited trait that is selected for over time because it allows organisms to better survive in their environment

cell theory

theory that states all organisms are made of cells, all cells are produced by other living cells, and the cell is the most basic unit of life

cytoplasm

jellylike substance inside cells that contains molecules and in some cells organelles

organelle

membrane-bound structure that is specialized to perform a distinct process within a cell

prokaryotic cell

cell that does not have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles

eukaryotic cell

cell that has a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles

qualitative data

Descriptions in words of what is being observed

quantitative data

Numeric measurements

Cytoskeleton

skeleton made out of proteins that give cell shape

Nucleus

stores and protects DNA

Endoplasmic Reticulum

aids in production of lipids and proteins

Ribosomes

tiny organelles that link amino acids together to form proteins, both in site of protein synthesis and participants in process

Golgi Apparatus

modifies, packages and transports proteins

Vesicles

isolate and transport specific molecules

Mitochondria

make energy for the cell

Vacuole

temporarily stores materials

Lysosomes

digest and recycle foreign materials or worn out parts

Centrioles

divide DNA during cell division

Cell Wall

gives protection, support, and shape to the cell

Chloroplasts

converts solar energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis

cell membrane

(plasma membrane), forms the boundary between a cell and the outside environment and controls the passage of materials into and out of a cell.

phospholipid

a molecule composed of three basic parts: a charged phosphate group, glycerol, and two fatty acid chains.

fluid mosaic model

a model that describes the arrangement and movement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane

selective permeability

condition or quality of allowing some, but not all, materials to cross a barrier or membrane

receptor

protein that detects a signal molecule and performs an action in response

Passive Transport

movement across cell membrane without using energy

Diffusion

movement of molecules in a liquid or gas from a higher to lower concentration

Concentration Gradient

difference in concentration from one location to another

Osmosis

diffusion of water

Isotonic

has same concentration of solutes as cell. water goes in an out at an equal rate (balanced)

Hypertonic

has more solutes than cell does. water flows out of the cell causing it to shrivel ex. salt water

Hypotonic

has less solutes than cell and lets water in causing it to burst ex. distilled water

Facilitate Diffusion

diffusion that transports proteins

cell membrane

(plasma membrane), forms the boundary between a cell and the outside environment and controls the passage of materials into and out of a cell.

ATP

transfers energy from breakdown of food to cell processes ( think of a wallet filled with money)

ADP

lower energy molecule that can be converted into ATP (think of a empty wallet)

Chemosynthesis

organisms use chemical energy instead of light energy to make energy storing

Photosynthesis

captures energy from sunlight to make sugars that store chemical energy

Chlorophyll

absorbs light energy in plants

Chloroplasts

(membrane bound) organelles where photosynthesis takes place in plants

Thylakoids

also known as grana; where light dependent reaction (stage 1) occurs

Stroma

the fluid that surrounds the grana inside a chloroplast

Light Dependent Reactions

captures sunlight energy and takes place in the thylakoid (Stage 1 of photosynthesis)

Light Independent Reactions

uses energy from the light dependent reactions to make sugars and takes place in the stroma (Stage 2 of photosynthesis)

Photostem

series of light absorbing pigments and proteins that capture adn transfer in thlyakoid

Electron Transport Chain

series of protiens in the thylakoid that convert ADP to ATP by transferring electrons

ATP Synthase

enzyme that begins the reaction that adds a high energy phosphate to ADP to form ATP

Calvin Cycle

process by which a photosynthetic organism uses energy to synthesize (combine) simple sugars from carbon dioxide

Cellular Respiration

process of producing ATP by breaking down carbon based molecules when there is oxygen

Aerobic

needs oxygen

Glycolysis

anaerobic process in which glucose is broken down into two three-carbon molecules and two ATP are produced

Anaerobic

does not need oxygen

Krebs Cycle

process during cellular respiration that breaks down carbon to molecules that are used in the electron transport chain

Fermentation

anaerobic process that allows glycolysis to continue to make ATP

Lactic Acid

product of fermentation mostly in muscle cells

Alcoholic Fermentation

glycolysis splits glucose and products enter fermentation, NADH is changed back to NAD

Cell Cycle

pattern of growth, DNA duplication and cell division
occurs in eukaryotic cells

Mitosis

process by which cell divides its nucleus and contents

Cytokinesis

process by which the cell cytoplasm divides

Chromosome

long, continuous thread of DNA that has numerous genes and other info

Histone

protein that organizes chromosomes and wraps around DNA

DNA

double stranded molecule made up of four differernt subunits

Nucleotides

subunits that make up DNA

Chromatin

loose combination of DNA and proteins that's present during interphase

Chromatid

1/2 of a duplicated chromosome

Centromere

region of condensed chromosome that looks pinched

Metaphase and Anaphase

Where do spindle fiber attach during ______ and ________?

Telomere

repeating nucleotides at the end of DNA

Form genes and help prevent the loss of genes

What does telomere do?

Prophase

1st phase of mitosis

Describe the process of prophase.

chromosomes condense, nuclear envelpoe breaks down, and spindle fibers form

Metaphase

2nd stage of mitosis

Metaphase

spindle fibers attach to each chromosomes and chromosomes line up at center of cell

Anaphase

3rd stage of mitosis

Describe the process of anaphase

sister chromatids seperate to opposite sides of the cell

Telophase

4th stage of mitosis

Describe the process of telophase

the nuclei form and chromosomes begin to uncoil

Interphase

prepares cell to divide and DNA is duplicated

Growth Factor

broad group of proteins that stimulate cell division

Apoptosis

programmed cell death

Cancer

common name for classes of diseases that divide the cell uncontrollably

Benign

having no dangerous effect on health, especially abnormal growth of non cancerous cells

Malignant

cancerous tumor in which cells break away to other parts of the body

Metastasize

to spread by transferring a disease causing agent from the site of the disease to other parts

Carcinogen

substance that produces or promotes the development of cancer like tobacco

Asexual Reproduction

process by which offspring are produced by a single parent

the joining of gametes which are sperm and eggs

What does asexual reproduction not involve?

Binary Fusion

asexual reproduction in which a cell divides into two equal parts

Tissue

group of cells

Organs

groups of tissues

Organ System

group of organs

Cell Differentation

process by which unspecialized cells mature

Stem Cell

cell that can divide for long periods of time while remaining undiffereniated

Cyclins

group of proteins that are rapidly made and destroyed at certain points in the cell cycle

Kinases

enzyme that transfers a phosphate group from one molecule to a specific target

Somatic Cell

body cell

Gamete

sex cell (sperm or egg)

Homologous Chromosome

pair of chromosomes that have the same length and share same genes, one from mother and father

Autosome

chromosome that carries characteristic genes

Sex Chromosome

chromosome that determines and controlls gender

Sexual Reproduction

process by whichtwo gametes fuse and offspring are similar to both

Fertilization

fusion of egg and sperm

Diploid

cell that has two copies of each chromosome (two sperm and two egg)

Haploid

cell that has one copy of each chromosome

Meiosis

nuclear division that creates 4 haploid cell forom one diploid with two rounds of division

meiosis

What is important in forming gametes for sexual reproduction?

Gametogenesis

production of gametes

Sperm

male gamete (sex cell)

Egg

female gamete (sex cell)

Polar Body

cells that have a little more than DNA and eventually break down

haploid; meiosis in female

What type of cell is a polar body and where is it produced?

Trait

inherited characteristic

Genetics

study of hereditary patterns and variation of organisms

Purebreed

genetically uniform organism

Cross

mating of two organisms

Law of Segregation

Mendel's first law

part one of law of segregation

organisms inherit two copies of genes, one from each parent

part two of law of segregation

organisms donate only one copy of each gene in their gametes because the genes separate during gamete formation

Gene

DNA that codes for a particular protein

Allele

alternative form of a gene

Homozygous

has two of the same alleles

Heterozygous

has two different alleles

Genome

an organism's genetic material

See More

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