The living components of the environment.
Examples: Animals, Plants, Competition
The non living, physical characteristics of land components.
Examples: Salinity, Temperature, Pressure, Wind
What 3 options do organisms have if abiotic factors change?
Adapt, migrate or die.
All the different populations of organisms that live in the same place.
What are the two types of population growths?
The J curve and the The S curve.
Define: J curve population
When populations peak because of ideal conditions but plummet after because of varying factors. (limited food, pollution, to much competition and more) These are unhealthy populations for ecosystem.
Define: S curve population
A more healthy population that has ups and downs but are generally steady.
Define: Exponential growth
When conditions are ideal for growth of a population and it explodes and grows faster and faster.
Define: Logistic growth
A growth pattern in which a population's growth rate slows or stops following a period of exponential growth
Define: Carrying Capacity.
The largest population size that can be sustained by the available resources.
Define: Physiological Adaptations
Adaptations where the genes of the individuial organism is unchanged and the adaptation is nto passed on to its offspring.
Define: Evolutionary Adaptation
Adaptations that are passed onto offspring as an advantage for survival.
Define: Natural Selection
Species adapting to their environment through generations. (survival of the fittest)
There will always be a _____________ that affect wheter an organism continues to ___________ and ______________
factor, survive, reproduce
Define: Limiting Resource
A short supply of somethingt that restricts the growth of a population.
Define: Self-regulatin Population
A population where its growth numbers depend on its own numbers.
Competition is the interaction that results when a resource in short supply is used by an organism at the expense of another.
Competition within one species.
Competition with other species.
Which type of competition is less competetive? why?
Interspecific, because if they are different species they probably use different methods of getting resources, thus avoiding conflict with getting resources in the same spot.
Define: Competetive Exclusion
When one species eliminates another by outcompeting it.
Define: Resource Partitioning
A way for species to avoid excluding eachother by sharing a limiting resource by specializing on just part of the resource.
Define: Ecological niche.
The role a species plays in the community.
Predation is the act of one organism eating another.
Herbivory is when an organism eats algae or plants.
Define: Indirect interactions
When one species affects another it could indirectly affect a third species causing indirect interactions.
A chition is a mollusk whose shell consists of eight overlapping plates on their upper surface.
Define: Trophic Cascade
A trophic cascade is a massive indirect interaction (chain reaction)
Epiphytes are photosynthetic organisms that live on the surface of algae or plants.
Define: Stabilizing Selection
Stabilizing selection is when selection acts to weed out individuals that are too far from the optimal balance.
Define: Directional Selection
This form of selection is when the optimal balance changes and selection drives evolution toward the new optimal balance.
Nudibranchs are a type of sea slugs.
Define: Inducible defense
An inducible defense is a defense mechanism only used in response to predators.
Coevolution is when two or more species evolve in respone to the other.
Symbiosis is the very close association between species.
What are the three types of symbiotic relationships?
Parisitism (+,-) (good for one bad for the other)
Mutualism (+,+) (good for both)
Commensalism (+, ) (good for one nothing for the other)
Define: Facultative Symbiosis
Facultative symbiosis is when two organisms would be better off living together, but they don't need to.
Define: Obligate Symbiosis
Obligate symbiosis is when two organisms require eachother for survival.
Sessile organisms are those that are attached to one place.
Pelagic animals are those that live up in the water column.
Nekton are those that can swim againt currents freely.
Phytoplankton are planktonic algae autotrophs that drift with currents.
Zooplankton are the heterotrophic plankton that drift with the currents.
Name the four pelagic zones
1. Epipelagic 100-200m
2. Mesopelagic 200-1,000m
3. Bathypelagic 1,000-4000m
4. Abyssopelagic 4,000 + m
also known as primary producers
also known as consumers
Define: Trophic level
Each step in the food chain.
What is an example the rule of 10%?
When a shark eats another fish, it only receive 10% of the fish's energy. If you ate the shark, then only 10% of the shark's energy came to you. Therefore, there are less sharks than fish in the ocean. The same applies to almost all food chains. Humans are the exception because we have the agricultural technology to coax more food from the earth.
90% of the food an organism eats is used for _______, _________ and __________ and 10% is stored as __________
Maintenance, Growth, Reproduction, Biomass
What is the importance of biogeochemical cycles?
They prevent accumulation of wastes.
They make sure they won't run out.
Also known as detritivores decompose various organic matter (DOM)
Dissolved organic matter.
Define: Nutrient Regeneration
When decomposers break down organic matter, the nutrients incorporated into the organic matter during primary production are released making them available for use again.
What is the rate of productivity or primary production often expressed as?
the amount of carbon fixed under a square meter of sea surface in a day or in a year (gC/m^2/day or gC/m^2/year)
Define: Standing Stock
The total amount of phytoplankton in the water.
Define: Biogenous Sediment
Sediment made of the skeletons and shells of marine organisms.
Define: Keystone predator
Predators that prevent the population of their prey from exploding thus outcompeting them. Their effect on biological diversity is disproportionate to their own abundance.