APUSH Chapters 1-6 Midterm Review

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Aztecs

When the Spanish arrived in Mexico, they found that the _____, a once nomadic warrior tribe, were ruling much of the region.

Leif Eriksson

Around the year 1000, the Norse seaman _____ sighted part of the New World.

Vasco da Gama

In 1497 and 1498, the Portuguese explorer _____ became the first European to sail all the way to India.

Asia, China, the Far East, the Orient

Columbus discovered the Americas while searching for a shorter route to _______.

Ferdinand Magellan

Between 1519 and 1522, _____ led a Spanish expedition that became the first to sail all the way around the world.

Conquistadores

Spanish _____ or conquerors, led the early expeditions that subdued the native populations of Mexico, Chile, and Peru.

Pueblo

When the Spanish moved into New Mexico in the 1500s and 1600s, they alternately fought with and cooperated with the _____ Indians who lived in the region.

disease

In the 1500s, the majority of the Native American peoples who died did so not because of warfare but because of _____ brought by the Europeans.

corn

When Columbus returned from his voyage to the New World, he brought with him the new American crop of _____, which soon became an important staple in Europe.

mestizos

The _____ were people of mixed race that arose in South America due to the interracial contacts between the Spanish colonies and the natives.

Guinea

By the fifteenth century, the people of upper _____ had substantial commercial relations with the Mediterranean world.

Matrilineal

African societies tended to be _____ which means that heredity is traced through, and property is inherited from, the mother.

John Cabot

In 1497, _____ led an English expedition that sailed along the northeastern coast of North America.

Mercantilism

From the 1500s to 1700s, the elites of England and the rest of Europe believed in the economic concept of ___________.

Protestant Reformation

The _____ began in Germany with Martin Luther's attacks on the Catholic Church and eventually spread to other parts of Europe, including England.

Henry VIII

Because he wanted a divorce that the pope refused to grant him, _____ broke England's ties with the Roman Catholic Church.

Puritans

The _____ were a group of English religious dissenters of the 1500s and 1600s who believed that the Church of England needed many reforms.

Ireland

The English learned the lessons that they later applied in North America in their attempt to conquer _____.

Coureurs de bois

The keys to the French Empire in North America were the _____, adventurous fur traders who penetrated far into the wilderness to trade with the Indians.

Spanish Armada

In 1588, King Philip II of Spain sent one of the largest fleets in history, the _____ to attack England.

Walter Raleigh

Sir _____ financed and organized the expedition that placed the first English colony in what is now the United States.

Lost Colony

Because of the fate of the colony at Roanoke, it has acquired the name of the _________.

Powhatan

The settlers at Jamestown faced powerful local Indians led by their imperial chief _____.

John Smith

In the fall of 1608, _____ took control of Jamestown and imposed work and order on the community.

John Rolfe

_____ developed Jamestown's first marketable crop and married the daughter of the local Indian chief.

Headright

To encourage settlement, some English colonies established the _____ system, which gave fifty-acre grants of land to each new settler.

Lord Baltimore

In 1632, the charter for Maryland was given to Caecilius Calvert the second _____.

William Berkeley

Bacon's Rebellion was in some ways a personal contest between Nathaniel Bacon and Governor _____.

Mayflower Compact

The agreement drawn up by the Pilgrims prior to stepping ashore at Plymouth was known as the _____.

John Winthrop

_____ served as the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony.

: City on the hill

The founders of Massachusetts believed they were founding a holy commonwealth, or a _____ a, model for the corrupt to see and emulate.

Theocracy

Colonial Massachusetts was, in effect, a _____, a society in which the Church was almost indistinguishable from the government.

Rhode Island

For a time in the mid 1600s, the only colony in which people of all faiths (including Judaism) could worship without interference was _____.

New Hampshire

Some of Anne Hutchinson's followers went north from Massachusetts to found _____, which became a formal colony in 1679.

Agrarian

Expanding colonial land needs were due to their _____ economy.

Oliver Cromwell

When the forces of Parliament won the English Civil War, _____ replaced the king and assumed the position of "protector" of the English government.

Proprietary

Between 1660 and 1688, all new English colonies in North America were of the _____ type, which means that one man or a few men, none of whom were the king, had a tremendous amount of control over the affairs of the colony.

New Netherland

James used military force to capture the colony of _____ and rename it New York.

Quakers

William Penn established his colony as a religious refuge for _____.

Delaware

In 1703, three counties withdrew from Pennsylvania to become the separate colony of _____.

sugar

In the Caribbean, Spain and England began to rely on an enslaved African work force on _____ plantations.

California

When Spain realized that English merchants and French and Russian trappers were present in the West, it began to colonize the territory of _____.

James Oglethorpe

General _____ led the group of trustees that founded the colony of Georgia.

Navigation Acts

The Parliamentary Acts drawn up in 1660, 1663, and 1673, which formed the basis of England's mercantile system in America, were known collectively as the _____.

Dominion of New England

In an attempt to consolidate all of the colonies from New Hampshire to New Jersey into one "supercolony," James II created the _____.

William and Mary

The Glorious Revolution deposed James II and brought _____ to the throne of Great Britain.

Indentured servitude

The system under which young men and women bound themselves to masters for fixed terms in exchange for passage to America, food, and shelter is called _____.

Natural increase

After the 1650s, in New England and the mid-Atlantic colonies, the most important source of population growth was _____.

Seasoning

Settlers in the colonies developed immunity to the local diseases by a slow process known as _____.

Patriarchal

A _____ family is one in which the father dominates family life.

Middle passage

Because it was the second of three legs on some New England trading voyages, the long journey from Africa to America carrying slaves became known as the _____.

Slave codes

The legal systems that granted almost absolute authority to white masters over their slaves in the 1700s were known as _____.

Scotch-Irish

The most numerous non-English settlers in the English colonies of North America were the _____.

Tobacco, rice, indigo

Most important for the economy of the southern colonies were the agricultural industries that produced cash crops like _____.

Wheat

The middle colonies supplied _____, an important cash crop, to New England and the South.

Triangular trade

The New England trade in rum, slaves, sugar, and molasses is described, somewhat inaccurately, as the _____.

Social mobility

The ability of people to move both up and down the "ladder of success" is called _____.

Stono

The most important slave revolt of the colonial period was the _____ Rebellion of 1739 which occurred in South Carolina.

Primogeniture

_____ is the English legal principle under which the firstborn son inherits all of his father's estate.

Salem, Massachusetts

The most famous outbreak of the witchcraft hysteria of the 1680s and 1690s occurred in _____.

Philadelphia

In the 1770s, the largest city in the English colonies of North America was _____.

Enlightenment

The intellectual movement of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries emphasized science and reason was the _____.

Great Awakening

The emotional religious revival of the late 1600s and early 1700s was known as the _____.

Jonathan Edwards

The outstanding preacher of the religious revival of the 1700s was the New England Congregationalist _____.

Ministers

The majority of the colleges in pre-Revolutionary America were established as training centers for _____.

John Peter Zenger

At the 1734 trial of New York publisher _____, the court ruled that criticisms of the government were not libelous if factually true.

Almanacs

Generally, the only publications in early America that contained humor were _____.

Iroquois

One of the goals of the Albany Congress was to sign a treaty with the _____ Indians.

Benjamin Franklin

In 1751, _____ wrote the plan presented in Albany for creating a general government in British America, but it was never approved by the colonies.

Seven Years' War

The French and Indian War was known in Europe as the _____.

Creoles

French plantations in the southern colonies of North America were owned by _____, white immigrants of French descent.

George Washington

A force led by _____ started the French and Indian War by attacking a French fort in the Ohio valley.

James Wolfe

_____ commanded the British force that captured the French city of Quebec in 1759.

George III

Ascending to the throne in 1760, _____ proved an ineffective ruler because he was easily controlled by his ambitious mother and suffered from intermittent bouts of insanity.

George Grenville

As the French and Indian War came to an end in 1763, _____ succeeded his brother-in-law, William Pitt, as prime minister in 1763.

Currency

The _____ Act of 1764 required colonial assemblies to discontinue issuing paper money.

Home rule

During the 1760s and 1770s, Americans began to defend vigorously the concept of _____, which held that colonials should govern themselves on matters that directly affected their own colonies, while allowing Britain to handle matters of foreign policy.

Patrick Henry

When accused of treason for predicting that George III would lose his head if British policies toward the colonies were not reversed, _____ supposedly replied: "If this be treason, make the most of it."

Sons of Liberty

In Boston, the _____ terrorized stamp agents and burned stamps to protest the Stamp Act of 1765.

Boston Massacre

In the 1760s, the _____ was the most graphic symbol of British oppression and brutality to occur in the colonies.

Virtual

Americans, drawing on their experiences in colonial assemblies, believed in actual representation instead of the British philosophy of _____ representation.

East India Company

The main purpose of the Tea Act was to save the _____ from bankruptcy.

Daughters of Liberty

The _____ was the women's patriotic organization that agitated against British policies in general and the Tea Act specifically.

Intolerable

The _____ Acts, or Coercive Acts, made a martyr of Massachusetts and sparked new resistance to Britain up and down the coast.

Thomas Gage

General _____ commanded the British troops that exchanged shots with the minutemen and touched off the American Revolution.

Olive Branch Petition

The _____ was the last American appeal to King George III to reconcile with the colonials.

Thomas Paine

_____ wrote the pamphlet "Common Sense."

Thomas Jefferson

_____ wrote most of the Declaration of Independence.

Loyalists, Tories

Americans who supported the British during the American Revolution are usually referred to as _____.

George Washington

Congress appointed _____ as the Continental Army's commander-in-chief.

Thomas Gage

General _____ commanded the British forces in Boston during 1775.

Bunker Hill

The British attempted to break the colonial siege of Boston at the Battle of _____.

Benedict Arnold

_____ was one of the Americans' best generals in the early part of the Revolution, fighting splendidly at Quebec and Fort Stanwix

William Howe

General _____, who became the new British commander in 1776, wanted to awe the Americans into submission rather than to fight them.

France

The first country to aid the Americans in their struggle for independence was _____.

Benjamin Franklin

During the American Revolution, the most effective American diplomat in France was_____.

South

The American Revolution truly became revolutionary when most of the combat shifted to the _____.

King's Mountain

In 1780, a major battle took place at _____ in the Carolinas, in which almost all of the forces on both sides were Americans.

Anglican

During the American Revolution, the church that suffered most in the United States was the _____ Church.

Camp followers

Women who stayed with their male relatives when they went off to war were known as _____.

Abigail Adams

_____, the wife of one of the American Revolutionary leaders, was one of the early advocates of expanding women's rights.

Privateers

During the 1700s, civilian vessels that tried to capture the civilian ships of an enemy country were called _____.

Executive

After their first experiences in the 1770s under the new state constitutions, most state governments strengthened the _____ branch of state government.

Thomas Jefferson

_____ wrote Virginia's 1786 Statute of Religious Liberty, which called for the complete separation of church and state.

Anthony Wayne

In 1794, General _____ led an American army that defeated a large Indian force at the Battle of Fallen Timbers.

Shays's Rebellion

The debtors' revolt in Massachusetts during 1786 and 1787 was called _____.

Alexander Hamilton

The most effective advocate of the new U.S. Constitution was _____ who later became the first

George Washington

Before _____ decided to attend the Philadelphia convention, there seemed little reason to believe that the meeting would become something as crucial in American history as the Constitutional Convention.

Founding Fathers

Some Americans affectionately refer to the men who were instrumental in starting the current United States government by writing the U.S. Constitution as the _____.

William Paterson

After Edmund Randolph presented the Virginia Plan to the Constitutional Convention, _____ offered the alternative New Jersey Plan on behalf of the small states.

Three-fifths

The "Great Compromise" proposed that each slave would be counted as _____ of a free person in determining the basis for representation and taxation.

James Madison

_____ became the most important person at the Constitutional Convention by contributing major ideas to the debates and by drafting much of the final document.

Checks and balances

The most distinctive feature of the Constitution was its separation of powers, which relied on a system of _____ to ensure that each branch of government would try to keep the others from exceeding their powers.

Federal

The United States has a _____ structure of government that divides power between the state governments and the national government.

John Jay

Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and _____ were the authors of The Federalist Papers.

Bill of Rights

The first ten amendments to the Constitution are known collectively as the _____.

Republicans

The _____ were an early political party that believed that the nation should maintain a modest central government with a predominantly rural and agrarian society.

National bank

Despite the fact that some people objected that the Constitution did not provide the authority to create a(n) _____, Congress chartered it for a period of twenty years, and it began operations in 1791.

Excise

Alexander Hamilton believed that a good way to fund the national debt was to place duties on the manufacture, sale, or consumption of certain commodities within a country. In other words, he asked Congress to pass _____ taxes.

Protective tariffs

Alexander Hamilton advocated placing taxes on foreign goods entering this country so that domestic products would be able to compete with them. Such taxes are called _____.

Whiskey

When the farmers in western Pennsylvania began terrorizing tax collectors in 1794, the resulting chaos became known as the _____ Rebellion.

Edmond Genet

_____ was the first diplomatic representative from revolutionary France to the United States.

Pinckney's

In 1795, American and Spanish diplomats negotiated _____ Treaty, which settled most conflicts between the two countries.

XYZ Affair

When French diplomats demanded a bribe before they would negotiate with American representatives, the resulting controversy became known as the _____.

Alien

The 1798 act that discouraged immigration and encouraged some foreigners to leave the United States was called the _____ Act.

Nullification

In the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison stated their belief in the concept of _____, the idea that a state could refuse to enforce within its boundaries a federal law that it thought was unconstitutional.

Aaron Burr

During the election of 1800, the Republican vice presidential candidate, _____, helped his party carry the state of New York and thus the nation.

Midnight appointments

The Judiciary Act of 1801 made possible the _____ of judges that took place just before the John Adams administration left office.

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