Amending the Constitution
STEP 1-Requires a 2/3 vote of the House and Senate or 2/3 of the state legislatures to propose the amendment.
STEP 2-Requires 3/4 of the state legislatures or 3/4 of state conventions to RATIFY!
POWERS OF CONGRESS: Elastic Clause
permits Congress to make any laws "necessary and proper" to carrying out its powers
POWERS OF CONGRESS: Oversight of the budget
used by Congress to gather information useful for the formation of legislation, review the operations and budgets of executive departments and independent regulatory agencies, conduct investigations through committee hearings, and bring to the public's attention the need for public policy
EXC. POWERS OF THE HOUSE: Revenue bills
Tax bills (must originate in the House) to raise money for the government
EXC. POWERS OF THE HOUSE:
the constitutional authority of the House to charge the President, Vice President, and other "civil officers" with "high crimes and misdemeanors"
EXC. POWERS OF THE SENATE:
-For positions throughout the federal government, for the Cabinet and subcabinet, for members of regulatory commissions, for ambassadorships, for judgeships and for members of numerous advisory boards.
-President will make other political appointments that do not require Senate confirmation.
EXC. POWERS OF THE SENATE:
formal agreements with other countries; negotiated by the president and requiring approval by two-thirds of the Senate
Authorization & Appropriation
The passage, by Congress, of a spending bill specifying the amount of authorized funds that actually will be allocated for an agency's use.
Budget and Impoundment Control Act 1974
established congressional budget committees and the congressional budget office, and gave congress the power to prevent the president from refusing to fund congressional initiatives
elected state legislators of the party meet and select their candidates for all legislative seats including those then held by the opposition party
Prevents filibustering (16 signatures) and ends debate in the Senate, by a 3/5s vote of the Senate
an expression of opinion without the force of law that requires the approval of both the House and the Senate, but not the president
temporary joint committee created to reconcile any differences between the two houses' versions of a bill
Congress's power to monitor the activities of agencies and administrators.
Spending set by the govt through appropriations bills, including operation expenses &salaries of govt employees (defense, environment, education, space exploration)
one part controls the presidency while the other party controls one or both houses of congress
Freedom of Information Act
1966 Act allowing citizens to inspect all government records with the exception of classified military or intelligence documents, trade secrets or private personnel files.
How a bill becomes a law
1. written 2. discussed in committee + voted 3. discussed in House of Reps. and Senate + voted on in both 4. President signs it or vetoes it (which brings back to Congress, needs 2/3 vote to override veto)
the drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent
When opposing parites & interests often block each other's proposals, creating a political stalemate/inaction btwn the executive & legislative branches of govt
an independent nonpartisan federal agency that acts as the investigative arm of Congress making the executive branch accountable to Congress and the government accountable to citizens of the United States
a clause that is appended to a legislative bill