Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west
Irish and Chinese
helped build the Transcontinental Railroad
1868 credit mobilier
a deliberate attempt to falsely present to the Government of the United States and the general public the appearance that an independent (of the Union Pacific Railroad and its principal officers) corporate enterprise had been impartially chosen by the Union Pacific Railroad's officers and directors to be the principal construction contractor and construction management firm for the Union Pacific Railroad project. It was created by the officers of the Union Pacific to shield the companies' shareholders and management from the then common charge that they were using the construction phase of the Union Pacific project (as opposed to the operating phase of carrying passengers and freight), to line their pockets in excess profits, profits which these corporate officers did not in fact believe would come to exist from the actual operation of the railroad. So they created a sham company to charge the U.S. Government extortionate fees and expenses for the construction of the line.
Interstate commerce act
prohibited rebates and pools, required railroads to publish rates, forbade discrimination against shippers, and outlawed charging more for short haul than for a long one over the same line
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"
United States financier who accumulated great wealth from railroad and shipping businesses (1794-1877)
Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"
Carnegie sold his company in 1900 for over 400 million to a new steel combination headed by JP Morgan. The new corporations, United States Steel, was the first billion dollar company and also the largest enterprise in the world, employing 168,000 people and controlling over 3/5th of the nations steel business
The Gospel of wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
Corporations that gain complete control of the production of a single good or service.
idea that government should stay out of business and economic affairs as much as possible
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in all aspects of a product's manufacture from raw materials to distribution
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level
Firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly). There are anti-trust laws to prevent these monopolies.
John D. Rockefeller
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
"cut throat competition"
when states under bid eachother
Developed in the 1880s, a practice by which railroads would give money back to its favored customers, rather than charging them lower prices, so that it could appear to be charging a flat rate for everyone.
Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.
Captains of Industry
owners and managers of large industrial enterprises who wielded extraordinary political and economic power
Sherman Anti- Trust Act 1890
The Act forbade combination in restraint of trade without any distinction between "good" trusts and "bad" trusts. The law proved ineffective because it contained legal loopholes and it made all large trusts suffer, not just bad ones.
1895: US v. EC Knights & co
also known as the "'Sugar Trust Case,'" was a United States Supreme Court case that limited the government's power to control monopolies.
coined term "social darwinism"
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Popular novelist during the Industrial Revolution who wrote "rags to riches" books praising the values of hard work
"Rags to Riches"
Stories written by Horatio Alger Jr.; idea is that somebody starts off very poor and works themselves up to riches; most people only dreamed of this; was a symbol of progress
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
More than 146 workers died. The owners locked the doors to keep out union organizers and so workers couldn't steal. People started jumping out of the windows it was so bad. The owners were tried for man slaughter but they were found not guilty. After this many laws were made to make the work place safer. New York passed the most stict laws.
a labor union whose membership is restricted to workers in a particular craft
a labor union of craftspeople or workers in related crafts, as distinguished from general workers or a union including all workers in an industry.
1877: The Great Strike
started on July 14 in Martinsburg, West Virginia, in response to the cutting of wages for the second time in a year by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (B&O). Striking workers would not allow any of the stock to roll until this second wage cut was revoked. The governor sent in state militia units to restore train service, but the soldiers refused to use force against the strikers and the governor called for federal troops.
1892: Homestead Strike
The strike occurred because the manager of the plant Henry Frick cut wages and refuse to negotiate with unionized Carnegies' Homestead steel workers
in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing
Stirkebreakers hired by employers as replacement workers when unions went on strike
Yellow dog contracts
A written contract between employers and employees in which the employees sign an agreement that they will not join a union while working for the company.
People who settle in a country they weren't born in.
Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
Haymarket Square Riot
A demonstration of striking laborers in Chicago in 1886 that turned violent, killing a dozen people and injuring over a hundred.
American Federation of Labor
a federation of North American labor unions that merged with the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1955
president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924
Eugene V Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
Members of the Chicago police force headed by Alan Pinkerton, they were often used as strike breakers.
Industrial Workers of the World
Founded in 1905, this radical union, also known as the Wobblies aimed to unite the American working class into one union to promote labor's interests. It worked to organize unskilled and foreign-born laborers, advocated social revolution, and led several major strikes. Stressed solidarity.
She was a labor organizer during the early 1900's, who is best know for her support of mine workers and was among the founders of the Industrial Workers of the World.
immigrants who had come to the US before the 1880s from Britain, Germany, Ireland, and Scandenavia, or Northern Europe
immigrants who had come to the US after the 1880s from southern and eastern europe
a synonym for religious tolerance, which is a condition of harmonious co-existence between adherents of different religions or religious denominations.
term originally used to describe the people who resettled in the area of Judah following the Babylonian Exile; most commonly used to refer to followers of Judaism
an environment in which many ideas and races are socially assimilated
"salad bowl" immigration
the integration of the many different cultures of United States residents combine like a salad
Ellis Island/ Angel Island
Many European immigrants passed through Ellis Island, while many Asian immigrants passed through Angel Island.
a condition of disorientation affecting someone who is suddenly exposed to an unfamiliar culture or way of life or set of attitudes
small, usually rural and ethnically homogeneous enclaves situated within a larger and more diverse cultural context.
An elementary or secondary school in the United States supported by public funds and providing free education for children of a community or distric
The first group of formally established Christians in Europe under the pope
1882: Chinese Exclusion act
Congress banned entry to all Chinese except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials. In 1892 congress extended law for 10 more years. In 1902 Chinese immigration restricted indefinitely and not repealed until 1943.
1907: Gentlemen's Agreement
Japan agrees to limit Japanese immigration in exchange for the U.S desegregating schools and allowing the wives of Japanese men already here to join them. In response to Nativism.
a new form of housing that was developed in the early 1900's it was designed as a dumbbell and had more apartments for more families and shared restrooms <these tenements were fire hazards, waste and disease>
Social Gospel Movement
a movement emphasizing the application of Christian principles to social problems
Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class. In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U.S., to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English.
Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.
Mark Twain/ "the glided age"
satirizes greed and political corruption in post-Civil War America
The business given to a commercial establishment by its customers
the system of employing and promoting civil servants on the basis of ability
During the Grant administration, a group of officials were importing whiskey and using their offices to avoid paying the taxes on it, cheating the treasury out of millions of dollars.
Corrupt organized groups that controlled political parties in the cities. A boss leads the machine and attempts to grab more votes for his party.
William "boss" Tweed
Polical Machine Leader of NYC's Tammany Hall. Corrupt in spending tax dollars. Benefit voters for votes and politicians for graft/greed.
a political organization within the Democratic Party in New York city (late 1800's and early 1900's) seeking political control by corruption and bossism
Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the elephant and the donkey for the political parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.
President James A. Garfeild
served as the 20th President of the United States, after completing nine consecutive terms in the U.S. House of Representatives.
Republicans fighting for civil service reform during Garfield's term; they supported Cleveland.
President Chester A. Arthur
Supported the Stalwarts and helped pass the Pendleton Civil Service Act.
Charles Julius Guitea
was an American lawyer who assassinated U.S. President James A. Garfield. He was executed by hanging.
1863: Pendleton Act
an American act for the reformation of the American national civil service, introduced into the Senate by George Hunt Pendleton, of Ohio in 1880, but which did not become a law until January the 6th, 1883. It provided for open competitive examinations for admission to the public service in Washington, and in all custom-houses and post-offices where the official force is of as many as fifty; for the appointment of a Civil Service Commission of three persons and for the apportionment of appointments according to the population of States.
A group of renegade Republicans who supported 1884 Democratic presidential nominee Grover Cleveland instead of their party's nominee, James G. Blaine.
Taxes on imports or exports