Chapter 2 Population

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all 35 terms from 2011 unit

Agricultural Density

The ratio of the number of farmers to the amount of arable land

Arithmetic Density

The total number of people divided by total land area (also called population density)

Census

The single most important data source for human geographers

Crude Birth Rate

The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society

Crude Death Rate

The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society

Child Mortality Rate

Refers to the death of infants and children under the age of five

Demographic Transition Model

Refers to the stages in which each country passes concerning development and population.
stage 1: Low Growth
stage 2: High Growth
stage 3: Moderate Growth
stage 4: Low Growth
stage 5: No Growth- Negative growth

Demography

The scientific study of population characteristics

Dependency Ratio

The number of people who are too young or too old to work, compared to the number of people in their productive years

Doubling Time

The rate of natural increase affects the ________________, which is the number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.

Infant Mortality Rate

The annual number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age compared with total live births.

Life Expectancy

The average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live at current mortality levels

Natural Increase Rate

The percentage by which a population grows in a year. Computed by subtracting the CDR from CBR.

Overpopulation

Not just the total number of people on Earth but also includes to relationship between the number of people and the availability of resources

Physiological Density

The number of people supported by a unit area of arable land

Population Pyramid

Normally shows the percentage of the total population in 5-year age groups, with the youngest group (0 to 4 years old) at the base of the pyramid and the oldest group at the top.

Population Distribution

The range or distribution of a species is the geographical area within which that species can be found.

Population Density

A measurement of population per unit area or unit volume

Population explosion

The geometric expansion of a biological population, especially the unchecked growth in human population resulting from a decrease in infant mortality and an increase in longevity

Total Fertility Rate

Average number of children a woman will have throughout her child-bearing years.

Agricultural revolution

The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.

Doubling Time

The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.

Ecumene

The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement

Epidemiological Transition

Focuses on distinctive causes of death in each stage of the DTM.
stage 1: pestilence and famine
stage2: Receding pandemics (industrial revolution)
stage 3: Degenerative and human created diseases
stage 4: delayed degenerative diseases
stage 5: Reemergence of infectious and parasitic diseases

Expansive population policies

Government policies that ENCOURAGE large families and raise the rate of population

Eugenic population policies

Government policies designed to favor one racial sector over others.

Industrial Revolution

Began in England in the late eighteenth century and spread to the European continent and North America during the nineteenth century. Major improvements in industrial technology. Resulted in uprecedented levels of wealth and healthier places to live.

Infectious Diseases

Also known as communicable diseases, contagious diseases or transmissible diseases comprise clinically evident illness resulting from the infection, presence and growth of pathogenic biological agents in an individual host organism.

Malthusians

Group of people in favor of Malthus's theories that describe how unchecked population growth is exponential (1→2→4→16) while the growth of the food supply was expected to be arithmetical (1→2→3→4).

Medical Revolution

Medical technology invented in Europe and North America diffused to less developed countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Result was improved medical practices eliminated many of the traditional causes of deaths in LDCs.

Newborn Mortality Rate

The number of newborns dying under 28 days of age divided by the number of live births that year.

Population composition

The description of the population defined by characteristics such as age, sex, and race

Stationary Population Level

The level at which a national population ceases to grow. ALSO- when the crude birth rate equals the crude death rate and the natural increase rate approaches zero. (Aka Zero population growth; Often applied to countries in stage 4 of the demographic transition model)

Restrictive population policies

Policies that restrict the growth of a population, usually enforced by the government or ethnic group, such as the communist Chinese "One Child Policy"

Zero Population Growth

When a country reaches stage 4 of the demographics transition when the CBR declines to the point where it equal the CDR, and the NIR approaches zero.

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