Intro to Pharmacology

51 terms by msantiago 

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Drug

chemical that interacts with an organism to alter its function, show biolgoical processes and provide methods of diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease

Pharmacology

the study of the interaction of drugs with an organism

Pharmacodynamics

the study of drugs modes of action on an organism

Pharmacy

the practice of compounding and dispensing medicinal preparations

Therapeutics

the branch of medicine concerned with the application of remedies and the treatment of disease

Hypersensitivity

an exaggerated adverse reaction to drug

Toxicology

the study of drugs' toxic effects on an organism

Entral

absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract

Parenteral

injected directly into the body

Transdermal

absorbed through the skin using timed-release

Topical

absorbed through the skin

Inhalation

absorbed through the respiratory tract or alveoli

Pharmacokinetic

movement of the drug

Pharmacodynamic

the drug has its effect

Absorption

the mechanism by which a drug enters the body

Distribution

the mechanism by which the drug is transported to the site of action

Metabolism

the mechanism by which a dug interacts with and is processed by the body

Elimination

the mechanism by which a drug leaves the body

Selectivity

the degree to which a drug acts at one specific site or receptor

Lock and Key Receptor Theory

a visual analogy that is used to describe interactions between drugs or receptors

Racemic Drug

drugs that contain two isomers a part of a drug's chemical structure

Half-Life

the amount of time it takes for a drug's concentration in the body to decrease by half once administered

Loading dose

administration of a higher dose than that used for maintenance in order to rapidly increase drug concentration

Maintenance dose

administration of a drug at dosage levels that maintain a therapeutic drug concentration

Potency

relative drug strength

Efficacy

the degree to which a drug exerts its intended effect

Idiosyncrasy

an unexpected reaction to a drug caused by unusual susceptibility to the drug

Agonist

drug action describing a drug that has an affinity for a receptor and activates a response

Antagonist

a drug action describing a drug that has an affinity for a receptor and does not activate a response

Additive

a drug action describing two drugs' effects as being equal to the summation of their individual effects

Syergism

drug action describing two drugs effects as being greater than the summation of their individual effects with both drugs being active

Potentiation

a drug action describing two drugs' effects as being greater than the summation of their individual effects, with one drug being active and one drug being inactive

Cumulation

a condition that exists when a drug's rate of elimination or inactivation is slower than its rate of administration

Tolerance

refer to the need for an ever increasing amount of a drug to continue to produce a given effect

Tachyphylaxis

is a rapidly occurring form of tolerance

Teratogenicity

a drug's potential to cause fetal damage in utero when administered to a pregnant woman

Lethal Dose50

the dose of a drug that is lethal in 50% of a test group of animals

Effective Dose50

the dose of a drug that is therapeutically effective in 50% of a test group of animals

Therapeutic Index

the ratio of Lethal Dose50/Effective Dose50

Chemical Name

this is the first name a potential drug receives

Code Name

this is a name assigned to the chemical by its manufacturer during the testing process

Generic Name

this is the name assigned to the chemical by the USAN when it appears to have therapeutic value and the manufacturer wants to market it

Official Name

the Generic name becomes the Official name when the drug receives approval from the Food & Drug Administration

Trade Name

name given to a drug by its manufacturer when the drug is marketed

Official Source of Information

Government issued

Unofficial Source of Information

Non-Government issued

Prescription

includes name, strength, dosage, route of administration, frequency and length

Preventing Medication errors

5 Rights: drug, dose, pt, time, and route

QD

Each Day

QID

Four times daily

Q2H

Every 2 hours

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