the totality of an organism's chemical reactions
A series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex molecule (anabolic pathway) or breaks down a complex molecule into simpler compounds (catabolic pathways)
a metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds
a metabolic pathway that consumes energy to synthesize a complex molecule from smaller molecules
the capacity to cause change
The energy associated with the relative motion of objects.
The energy that matter possesses as a result of its location or spatial arrangement (structure).
Heat (thermal energy)
Kinetic energy associated with the random movement of atoms or molecules
the potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction
the study of the energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter
first law of thermodynamics
Energy cann be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed. (AKA principle of conservation of energy)
second law of thermodynamics
Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe.
the portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system.
a spontaneous chemical reaction, in which there is a net release of free energy outward
a nonspontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings. "energy inward"
the pushing of endergonic reactions, which would not occur spontaneously
the pumping of substances across membranes against the direction of spontaneous movement
movement (ex. muscle cells)
the use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one.
referring to a molecule that is covalently bonded to a phosphate group
a macromolecule serving as a catalyst; a chemical agent that changes the rate of reaction without being consumed by the reaction
a chemical agent that increases the rate of reaction without being consumed by the reaction
the amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start; also called free energy of activation
the reactant on which an enzyme works
a temporary complex formed when an enzyme binds to its substrate molecule(s)
the specific portion of an enzyme that binds the substrate by means of multiple weak interactions and that forms the pocket in which catalysis occurs.
induced by entry of the substrate, the change in shape of the active site of an enzyme so that it binds more snugly to the substrate
a substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics
a substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing the enzyme's shape so that the active site no longer functions effectively.
any nonprotein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme. Cofactors can be permanently bound to the active site or may bind loosely with the substrate during catalysis
An organic molecule serving as a cofactor. Most vitamins function as coenzymes in metabolic reactions.
The binding of a regulatory molecule to a protein at one site that affects the function of the protein at a different site.
A kind of allosteric regulation whereby a shape change in one subunit of a protein caused by substrate binding is transmitted to all the others, facilitating binding of subsequent substrate molecules.
A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within the pathway.
the study of how energy flows through living organisms
ADP + Phosphate Group
ATP + H20 ---> ?
When an enzyme is at the peak of its functionality it is referred to as ______.
Portion of system's energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system
Measure of randomness of disorder
A process that can occur without an input of energy
Study of how energy flows through organisms
Stabilizes inactive shape of enzyme
Stabilizes active shape of enzyme