Bransford cumulative voc. 2

98 terms by heatherjbraden 

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hot spot

an area where magma from deep within the mantle melts through the crust above it

stress

a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume

Tension

stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle

shearing

stress that pushes masses of rock in opposite directions, in a sideways movement

silica

A material found in magma that is formed from the elements oxygen and silicon; it is the primary substance of Earth's crust and mantle

dormant

not currently active but able to become active in the future (like a volcano)

focus

the point beneath Earth's surface where rock first breaks under stress and causes an earthquake

epicenter

the point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus

Richter scale

a scale that rates an earthquake's magnitude based on the size of its seismic waves

moment magnitude scale

a scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquake

land reclamation

the process of restoring land to a more natural, productive state

deforestation

the action of clearing forests

urbanization

the development of large land areas for cities

eutrophication

the buildup over time of nutrients in freshwater lakes and ponds that leads to an increase in the growth of algae

chlorofluorocarbon

human-made gases containing chlorine and fluorine (also called CFCs) that are the main cause of ozone depletion

emissions

pollutants that are released into the air

photochemical smog

a brownish thick haze that is a mixture of ozone and other chemicals formed when pollutants react with sunlight

ozone

a form of oxygen that has three oxygen atoms in each molecule instead of the ususl two; toxic to organisms where it forms near the Earth's surface

acid rain

rain or another from of precipitation that is more acidic than normal, caused by the release of molecules of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide into the air

radon

a colorless, odorless, radioactive gas

ozone layer

the layer of the upper atmosphere that contains a higher concentration of ozone than the rest of the atmosphere

tributary

a stream or river that flows into a larger river

watershed

the land area that supplies water to a river system

water table

the top of the saturated zone, or depth to the groundwater under Earth's surface

pesticide

a chemical that kills insects and other crop-destroying organisms

wetland

a land area that is covered with a shallow layer of water during some or all of the year

mid-ocean ridge

an undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced; a divergent plate boundary under the ocean

sea-floor spreading

the process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor

deep-ocean trench

a deep valley along the ocean floor beneath which oceanic crust slowly sinks toward the mantle

subduction

the process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary

plate

a section of the lithosphere that slowly moves over the asthenosphere, carrying pieces of contintental and oceanic crust

divergent boundary

a plate boundary where two plates move away from each other

convergent boundary

a plate boundary where two plates move toward each other

transform boundary

a plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions

plate tectonics

The theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle

fault

a break in Earth's crust along which rocks move

rift valley

A deep valley that forms where two plates move apart

geo-

land, earth

pre-

before

vit- viv-

life

relative age

the age of a rock compared to the ages of other rocks

absolute age

the age of a rock given as the number of years since the rock formed

law of superposition

the geologic principle that states that in horizontal layers of sedimentary rock, each layer is older than the layer above it and younger than the layer below it

fault

a break in Earth's crust along which rocks move

index fossil

fossils of widely distributed organisms that lived during a geologically short period

radioactive decay

the process in which radioactive elements break down, releasing fast-moving particles and energy

half-life

the time it takes for half of the atoms of a radioactive element to decay

continental drift

the hypothesis that the continents slowly move across earth's surface

Pangaea

the name of the single landmass that began to break apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's continents

un- , in-, im-, il-, ir-

lot

dis-

not, or opposite of

-less

without

-ful

full of

fossil

the preserved remains or traces of an organism that lived in the past

mold

a type of fossil that is a hollow area in sediment in the shape of an organism or part of an organism

cast

a fossil that is a solid copy of an organism's shape, formed when minerals seep into a mold

petrified fossil

a fossil in which minerals replace all or part of an organism

carbon film

a type of fossil consisting of an extremely thin coating of carbon on rock

trace fossil

a type of fossil that provides evidence of the activities of ancient organisms

paleontologist

a scientist who studies fossils to learn about organisms that lived long ago

evolution

change over time; the process by which modern organism's have descended from ancient organisms

extinct

1. a group of related organisms that has died out and has no living members. 2. term used to describe a volcano that is no longer active and unlikely to erupt again

describe

Give an account of; present in detail the characteristics by which an object or action can be recognized, or an event or process visualized

distinguish

mark as different

support

make by combining materials and parts

formulate

to put in a clear and definite form of statement of expression

infer

the process of drawing a conclusion by applying clues

demonstrate

provide evidence for; stand as proof of

extrusive rock

igneous rock that forms from lava on Earth's surface

intrusive rock

igneous rock that forms when magma hardens beneath Earth's surface

foliated

term used to describe metamorphic rocks that have grains arranged in parallel layers or bands

sediment

small, solid pieces of material that come from rocks or the remains of organisms; earth materials deposited by erosion

weathering

the chemical and physical processes that break down rock and other substances

erosion

the process by which water, ice, wind, or gravity moves weathered particles of rock and soil

deposition

process in which sediment is laid down in new locations

compaction

the process by which sediments are pressed together under their own weight

igneous rock

a type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface

sedimentary rock

a type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together

metamorphic rock

a type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions

summarize

stating briefly and succinctly

contrasts

the opposition or dissimilarity of things that are compared

illustrates

clarify by giving an example of

compare

put side by side, balance, match up to

seismic wave

A vibration that travels through earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake

inner core

a dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of Earth

lithosphere

the solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and outer mantle

asthenosphere

the soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats

outer core

the liquid layer of the Earth's core that lies beneath the Mantle and surrounds the inner Core

radiation

energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles

convection

the transfer of heat through a fluid (liquid or gas)

basalt

a dense dark gray fine-grained igneous rock

pressure

the force applied to an area of surface

granite

A usually light colored igneous rock that is found in continental crust

mantle

the layer of the earth between the crust and the core

density

the amount of matter in a given space (calculation: mass/volume)

conduction

the direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching

crust

the outer layer of the Earth

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