Chapter 8: Photosynthesis

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Vocabulary terms from Chapter 8 of Prentice Hall Biology. THIS IS A HARD CHAPTER! This chapter covers the process of photosynthesis (WAY HARDER THAN IT SOUNDS). :)

autotroph

an organism that makes its own food, such as a plant

heterotroph

an organism that obtains its energy from the food it consumes

adenosine triphosphate

one of the principal compounds that cells use to store and release energy, abbreviated as ATP

adenosine diphosphate

a compound similar to ATP, but with two phosphate groups instead of three, abbreviated as ADP

photosynthesis

the process by which plants use the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high-energy carbohydrates and oxygen as a waste product

pigment

a light-absorbing molecule that plants use to gather the sun's energy

chlorophyll

the plants' principal pigment, absorbs blue-violet and red light very well, but not green light

thylakoid

a saclike photosynthetic membrane contained inside the chloroplasts

grana

stacks of thylakoids

photosystem

a cluster of pigments that is the light-collecting unit of the chloroplast

stroma

the region of the chloroplast outside the thylakoid membranes where the Calvin cycle takes place

NADP+

a carrier molecule of the electron transport chain that accepts and holds 2 high-energy electrons along with a hydrogen ion (H+)

NADPH

the compound that NADP+ is converted to; carries the high-energy electrons to chemical reactions elsewhere in the cell

light-dependent reactions

the reactions in photosynthesis that require light that produces oxygen and converts ADP and NADP+ into ATP and NADPH

ATP synthase

an enzyme that allows H+ ions to pass through it and then rotates to bind ADP and a phosphate to produce ATP

Calvin cycle

light-independent reactions; a cycle in which ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions is used to produce high-energy sugars

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