Earth Science - layers, rocks, and soil (Standard S6E5-S6E6)

Created by rhenley823 

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Vocabuarly Practice for CRCT

Density

amount of mass in a certain amount of volume (ex. which is more dense? a coke can filled with feathers or a coke can filled with rocks?)

Core

Earth's inner most layer - made mostly of the elements iron and nickel

Mantle

layer that surrounds the core - makes up most of Earth's mass

Convection current

created by hot materials rising, cooling off, and then sinking back down

Lithosphere

outer zone of Earth - made of the crust and upper mantle - broken into tectonic plates

Asthenosphere

slowly flowing layer of rock under the lithosphere

Theory of Continental Drift

Proposed by Alfred Wegener who claimed that the continents were once part of one giant land mass called Pangea which later broke apart causing their present positions

Plate tectonics

outer part of Earth is divided into several distinct segments that occasionally shift

Convergent boundaries

where tectonic plates come together

Divergent boundaries

where tectonic plates move apart

Transform boundaries

where tectonic plates slide past each other

Minerals

solids that occur naturally and have a definite structure and chemical composition

Rocks

groups of minerals packed tightly together

Igneous

"fire formed" - formed from cooling magma and lava

Metamorphic

rocks that change - "morph" - due to heat and pressure

Sedimentary

rocks that are formed from bits of weathered rock or remains of tiny organisms being pressed together into a solid mass

Rock cycle

describes the interactions that form and change rocks over time

Fossil

remains or traces of past life

Fossil Record

history of earth's life as shown by fossils

Mechanical weathering

physical breakdown of rock into smaller pieces; may be broken down by wind, water, ice, etc.

Chemical weathering

change in the chemical composition of rock that breaks it down (ex. acid rain)

Erosion

transportation of sediment from one place to another by wind, flowing water, ice, and gravity

Sediments

particles of rock broken down by weathering

Deposition

dropping of sediment by flowing water, wind or glaciers when their movement slows

Dune

mound of sand deposited by wind erosion

Glacier

huge mass of slowly moving ice

Landslide

occurs when gravity pulls huge amounts of rocks and sediment down a hill or mountain

Resources

things made by nature that people need or use

Nonrenewable resources

resources that cannot be replaced or reproduced in a lifetime (ex. fossil fuels, coal, petroleum, natural gas)

Renewable resources

resources that can be replaced in a relatively short period of time (ex. plants, animals, water)

Fossil fuels

source of energy that comes from the remains of plants and animals that died millions of years ago (ex. natural gas, petroleum, and coal)

Soil

constantly changing resource made from rock and mineral fragments, humus, air and water

Humus

decayed plant and animal material in the ground

Texture of soil

refers to how it feels and the size of its rock particles

Pollution

the contamination of soil, water, or air with harmful substances

Global warming

increase in the average temperature of Earth's atmosphere

Conservation

the protection of resources from pollution or damage

Recycling

using raw material more than once to reduce waste

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