English "sage" and founder of philosophical radicalism. Wrote prolifically between 1776 and 1832. Sought reform in England - especially in criminal justice system, church, parliament and the constitution. Supporter of utilitarianism - goal of which was "the greatest happiness for the greatest number," - sought codes of scientific law applicable to society which followed this credo. If laws had utility, they would benefit mankind.
British cotton lord of Manchester and the Scottish Lowlands. Built model community/factory town in New Lanark, Scotland. Demonstrated that industry could be run and profit made without abusing the workers. Provided good conditions for working families. Exemplified paternalistic capitalism. Later set up model community in U.S. - New Harmony, Indiana - not as successful. Owen crusaded for social reform. Had difficulty persauding other capitalists to follow his lead.
Count de Saint-Simon
Frenchman from the aristocratic class who had supported the Fr. Rev. cause. Thought its principles incomplete. Had also fought in Am War for Indep. Wrote books on social problems. He and his followers were in favor of a planned society. Advocated public ownership of capital and thought capitains of industry should direct society.
1805-1872, Italian. Member of Carbonari and went on to found the Young Italy movement in 1831. Known as the spirit/soul of Italian Unification. Edited publications which spread Italian nationalism. Wrote The Duties of Man in which he emphasized family, nation and God.
Grimm's Fairy Tales
First published in Germany in 1812. The two brothers Grimm were founders of modern science of comparative linguistics. They studied the different dialects in the various German states. In the process of their research/travels, they collected folktales from around Germany. In effect, it became a search for the indigenous spirit of Germany. As many different Germans identified/recognized commonalities in tales, it increased their sense of a shared German culture.
Hegel was a German, 1770-1831, and probably the most outstanding of all 19th century philosophers. He emphasized the importance of the state. Became the philosopher of "change." The Hegelian dialectic described the tendancy of the mind to proceed from the creation of opposites. A thesis, he claimed, was usually followed by an antithesis and from these two came, ultimately, a synthesis. His ideas then stimulated historical studies seeking to find this "Hegelian dialectic" in man's recorded past.
Leopold von Ranke
1795 to 1886, most eminent of German historians and founder of scientific method/school of historical writing. He doubted if western principles suited the German character. Thought Germans had a mission from God - and that was nationalism. His nationalis feelings shown in books such as Latin and Teutonic Peoples. Yet also believed in Europe's uniqueness due to INTERPLAY between peoples and balance of power policies to resist domination by any one country/ruler (Louis XIV and Nap).
German who wrote National System of Political Economy in 1841. Thought political economy as advocated in England was self-serving to England but that other economies need to build economies - infrastructures and cities to compete. Therefore they would need to erect tariff barriers to protect themselves from competition while getting started. Was inspired by H. Clay's American System in which he'd advocated a national system of political economy. List said there was no universal theory of economics which applies to all countries at all times.
1772-1837. French doctrinaire thinker who subjected all institutions to sweeping condemnation. Advocated "phalanstries" or small self-sufficient communes and a system of social and economic organization. None of those experiments that were tried in France succeeded. However, Brook Farms, on a similar principle, was run for about 5 years in America.
A Paris journalist, editor of Revue de Progres and author of Organization of Work. Proposed social workshops/state supported manufacturing centers as a way to deal with the problems of industrialization(recognized the developing hostility toward the owning class/bourgeoisie).
The Slavs - including Russians, Poles, Ukrainians, BYelorussian, Ruthenians, Czechs, Slovaks, Slovenes, Croats, Serbs and Bulgars - were undergoing something of a revival of self-esteem. Had been submerged under Western influence then in 19th century they emerge to assert Slavism. Languages and cultures were promoted by Slavs such as Karajich in his book Popular Songs and Epics of Serbs.
History of the Czech People
1836, by the historian Palacky. First published in German as History of Bohemia then recast into Czech and changed title emphasizing the Czech People. In Poland too there was an increase in nationalistic feeling - promoted by literary figures such as Mickeiwicz.
Spread in Russia in last years of Alexander I and after even though he'd been westernized. Application of principle of Volksgeist. These same feelings had rejected the ideas of Peter the Great. Before 1848 these sentiments were still pretty embryonic. Would take a while to grown.
The philosophical conservative in England who'd opposed the French Revolution and held that each people must change own institutions according to their history and needs . Example of a conservative/even a bit reactionary. Supported monarchy. Thought Britain should "maintain throne and altar."
In Italy - a secret nationalist group which first arose during the time of Napoleonic occupation. Name from charcoal burners who had camps in woods outside of towns. Met in secret at these camps. Since nationalism was considered revolutionary at time of Nap and in post congress Europe - secrecy important.
Chief minister in autocratic, multinational Austrian monarchy. Mastermind of region. Kept Hapsburg power and forces of REACTION dominant. At Congress of Troppau persauded hitherto libera Tsar Alexander I to convert to conservatism. Used (in Austrian Empire and Austrian dominated regions of Germany and Italy) censorship of speech and press, secret police, spies and arbitrary arrest. Used military force and diplomacy to protect reactionary goals.
"Liberal" tsar of Russia (1801-25) who had played a major role in downfall of Napoleon. Feared by representatives of other powers as dreamer, self-chosen world saviour(Holy Alliance) who wanted to bring Christianity into politics. Some even thought of him as a crowned liberal.
Duke de Berry
Nephew of LXVIII and son of Count of Artois(later CharlesX). Assassinated in 1820 by fanatical workingman. Event gave seeming justification to those who said all partisans of revolution were criminal and extreme. Furthered the future Charles X's conservative/reactionary stance.
1824-1830, Bourbon king of France after LXVIII. Previously the Count of Artois - one the the first emigres in revolution and very active in organizing the emigres opposition to the revolution. He was the favorite Bourbon among the most obstinate ex-seigneurs, nobles and high churchmen. Very reactionary in his reign.
In the wake of Napoleon's 100 days, royalist counterrevolutionaries undertook this persecution of those Bonapartists and republicans. Catholic mobs seized and killed protestants in Marseilles and Toulouse. It was a time of revenge-seeking. (Had been a similar "white terror" in Thermidorean Reaction when people with royalist sympathies had taken revenge on republicans who had been closely associated with the Terror).
"More Royalist than the King"
Chamber of Deputies chosen in 1815 (by tiny electorate of well-to-do landowners) - more royalist than king. King (Louis XVIII) couldn't control mounting frenzy of reaction against Bonapartists and republicans. Louis XVIII was sensible enough to realize this revenge-seeking would only infuriate revolutionary element - and it did. Assassination of Duke de Berry provoked by this and then encouraged more of it - vicious cycle.
Created at Congress of Vienna - a constitutional kingdom with Alexander I of Russia as king - merely a personal union with Russia. Poles discovered that "liberalism" of Alexander was only on HIS terms. Russian aristocracy was cynical about the new Polish system. Poles agitated on question of the eastern border. At University of Vilna secret societies were formed wanting independent Polish state (expression of Polish nationalism). Alexander had these societies supressed.