In Germany in 1815 these were student clubs which emphasized political discussion instead of drinking and dueling/carousing. After two years in existence they held the Wartburg Congress.
In 1817 this was a meeting of Burschenschaft from around Germany. Students listened to rousing speeches by patriotic professors, marched about in Teutonic costumes and burned reactionary books. When, in 1819, a theology student assassinated a German writer, Kotzbue, who was an informer to the Tsar, many students supported this action.
1819, Metternich induced the German Confederation to issue these. Aimed at suppression of liberal and nationalist ideas in Germany:
1. Strict supervision of university teachers and students' organizations.
2. Strict censorship.
3. Dissolved Burschenschaft and equally nationalistic Gymnasium Clubs.
Decrees were in force for many years and proved an effective short-term check on on liberals and nationalists.
Passed in 1815 in England by gentry/squires who controlled parliament. Raised the tariffs on imported grain (which flooded market after Napoleonic Wars) in order to protect their own interests. However, this created a hardship on wage-earners who had to buy bread - especially since there was a post-war economic depression. Corn Laws provoked demonstrations, riots and even an attack on the Prince Regent. The government responded by suspending habeas corpus, dealing harshly with suspects and employing spies to infiltrate mob.
(Corn Laws later repealed due to activities of Anti-Corn Law League and in wake of Irish potato famine.)
1819, in England. Govt troops fired on large crowd assembled in St. Peters Field in Manchester to hear speeches on parliamentary reform and repeal of the Corn Laws. 11 people were killed. Term "Peterloo" adopted to show stark contrast to glory and righteousness of Waterloo victory over Napoleon.
December, 1819. Parliament adopted these repressive acts:
1. Restricted Freedom of Speech and Assembly and other civil liberties
2. Increased taxes on newspapers
3. Established fines for seditious libel
4. Expanded right of search by police
5. Promoted speedy trial
6. Allowed for harsh punishment.
Cato Street Conspiracy
January, 1820. Following death of George III the Prince Regent succeeded to the throne as George IV(1820-30). Govt uncovered a plot to assassinate entire cabinet. Leaders were arrested and tried and executed.
Alexander I's brainchild from Congress of Vienna. This was the popular term for what was supposed to be a Christian Pledge to rule fairly and according to Christian principles. Major powers were supposed to work in harmony. But became an "unholy" alliance for suppression of revolutionary and liberal activity.
Or Concert of Europe as is was sometimes called. It was hoped this would lead to preservation of the Balance of Power and conservative order as established by the Congress of Vienna. Three major Congresses were held in Aix La Chapelle.
Aix La Chapelle
In 1818. Ended indemnity for France and army of occupation - took pressure off LXVIII who was, afterall, trying to establish a conservative order in France. Alexander I wanted a committment by powers to maintain the borders of Europe exactly as they were but Castlereagh would not agree to open-ended agreement.
Protocol issued here in Congress of 1820 to deal with threats to BoP established at Vienna. Metternich was able to persaude Alexander I to take a more reactionary stance against these threats to order. There were revolutions in Spain where the army had forced King Ferdinand VII to sign a constitution and in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies the king, Ferdinand I had adopted a constitution under revolutionary pressure. The Protocol declared that Russia, Prussia and Austria had the right to intervene in other countries to put down revolutions. Austria then sent troops to put down rev in Sicilies. Brit objected to this interventionist policy.
In 1822. The last of the congresses - authorized France to intervene in Spain. With French support, King Ferdinand VII reestablished his absolute power. George Canning, who became British foreign secretary in 1822, continued Britain's opposition to the policy of intervention. This opposition resulted, in effect, in Britain's withdrawal form the Quintuple Alliance (France had been added to the Quadruple Alliance).
Ypsilanti's Greek Project
In 1821, a Greek Russian army officer plus followers went into Romania (part of Turkey) with same idea as Catherine's Greek Project. He expected Russian support. Metternich(of Austria) was not enthused about this plan and expressed that to Alexander I at the Congress of Verona, 1822. Alex proved to be more reactionary and willing to work in concert with other powers than to seek own advantage for Russian influence in Turkey. Did not support Ypsilanti who was defeated by Turks.
Second generation and beyond of Spanish colonists in the Americas. They were white, of Spanish descent but born in America. Led and independence movement for Spanish America. Had become very active in local govts in Americas.
First generation Spanish in Americas - born in Spain and sent to America to occupy high offices in colonies.
Important leader of independence movt. in Spanish America. Liberated Bolivia, Venezuela and Columbia.
Jose de San Martin
Important leader of independence movt. in Spanish America. Liberated San Martin, Argentina and Chile.
First revolts in Sp. America were against Joseph after Napoleon made him king of Spain in 1808. Rebels were loyal to Ferdinand VII who, when restored, made NO concessions to Spanish American demands. The revolutionary sentiment then turned against him since he had in no way rewarded their loyalty to the Spanish throne.
Dec. 1823. James Monroe, American President, supported the S. American independence movement. Interested in "hemispheric solidarity" - i.e. wanted Europeans to stay out of American affairs. Canning didn't oppose this doctrine. "Called New World into existence to redress balance of the Old" - was preoccupied with Verona and concerned about excessive Euro power meddling there. At that time, success of Monroe Doctrine depended on on cooperation of Brit fleet. With few exceptions, 300 years of Euro colonial empires in Americas now coming to and end.
Alexander I died in 1825 and restless groups in Russian army supported Constantine as Tsar over Nicholas I (because former had proposed innovations). Proclaimed him tsar at St. Petersburg - wanted Constantine and constitution. But Constantine had declared in favor of Nicholas. Five officers were hung. This was the first modern revolutionary movt in Russia.
Which led to July Revolution in France in 1830. Chamber of Deputies had declared no confidence in Charles X. He had ordered the Chamber dissolved, censored the press, reduced the suffrage and called for new elections. The resulting July Revolution by liberals and moderate loyalists wanted to continue Const Monarchy but with different monarch. A few wanted more radical change but moderates prevailed.