Chapter 12 Integuementary System pt. 2

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Biopsy

Removal of a small piece of living tissue for examination to confirm or establish a diagnosis

Incisional biopsy

A piece but not all of the tumor or lesion removed

Excisional biopsy

The entire tumor or lesion plus a margin of surrounding tissue are removed

Needle biopsy

A needle is used to remove a core of tissue for examination

Exfoliative cytology

Biopsy form in which cells are scraped from the tissue and examined under a microscope

Seborrhea

Any of several common skin conditions in which there is an overproduction of sebum

Acne vulgaris

Chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a pusular eruptions of the skin that usually occur in or near the sebaceous glands

Comedo

Blackhead; formed by the buildup of sebum and keratin in a pore of the skin

Sebaceous cyst

Cyst of a sebaceous gland, containing yellow, fatty material

Hyperhidrosis

Condition of excessive sweating

Anhidrosis

Condition of lacking or being without sweat

Pilonidal

A hair containing cyst found in the midlinen over the area of the sacrum

Hirsutism

Means abnormal hairiness

Alopecia

Aka baldness, partial or complete lack of hair

Alopecia areata

Disease of unknown cause in which there are well-defined bald patches

Alopecia totalis

Uncommon condition characterized by the loss of all the hair on the scalp

Alopecia universalis

Total hair loss on all parts of the body

Onchia

Aka onychitis. Inflammation of the matrix of the nail

Paronychia

Infection of the fold of skin at the margin of a nail

Onchyophagia

Nail-biting or eating

Onchyocryptosis

Ingrown toenail

Onchymycosis

Fungus infection of the nail

Subungual hematoma

Collection of blood under a nail, usually resulting from and injury

Koilonychias

Aka spoon nail, a malformation of the nails in which the outer surface is concave(scooped out). Indicative of iron deficiency anemia

Clubbing

Abnormal flattening of the nail that is often accompanied by enlargement of the fingertips. Associated with chronic lack of oxygen caused by coronary or pulmonary disease.

Dyschromia

Any disorder of the pigmentation of the skin or hair

Melanosis

Any condition of unusual deposits of black pigment in different parts of the body

Albinism

Inherited deficiency or absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes due to an abnormality in production of melanin

Vitiligo

A loss of pigment in areas of the skin, resulting in milk-white patches

Lesion

Pathologic change of the tissues due to disease or injury. described by appearance, location.

Contusion

Injury that does not break the skin and is characterized by swelling, discoloration, and pain.

Papule

Small, solid, raised skin lesion that is less than 0.5 cm in diameter; for example, nonpustular acne

Plaque

Solid raised lesion that is greater than 0.5 cm in diameter

Macule

Discolored, flat skin lesion such as a freckle or flat mole that is less than 1cm in diameter

Patch

Localized change in skin color of greater than 1 cm in diameter

Scale

Flaking or a dry patch made up of an excess dead epidermal cells

Crust

Collection of dried serum and cellular debris

Wheal

Smooth, slightly elevated, swollen area that is redder or paler than the surrounding skin that is usually accompanied by itching, for example, and insect bite or a reaction to an allergy skin test

Ecchymosis

Bruise; purplish patch caused by bleeding into the skin.

Petechiae

Small, pinpoint hemorrhage

Verrucae

Warts, skin lesions caused by the HIV

Birthmark

Aka patch/nevus. Congenital hemangioma or pigmented cells on the skin surface.

Cyst

Closed sack or pouch containing fluid or semisolid material.

Pustule

Small circumscribed elevation of the skin containing pus. Circumscribed- contained within limited area

Vesicle

Aka blister. Circumscribed elevation of skin containing fluid that is less than .5 cm in diameter.

Bulla

Large vescle or blister that is more than .5 cm in diameter.

Abscess

Localized collection of pus within a circumscribed area and associated with tissue destruction

Laceration

Torn or jagged wound or an accidental cut wound

Ulcer

Open sore or erosion of the skin or mucous membrane resulting in tissue loss and usually with inflammation

Decubitus ulcer

Aka pressure ulcer or bedsore. And ulcerated area resulting from prolonged pressure on a body part.

Fissure

Groove or cracklike sore

Fistula

Abnormal passage from and internal organ to the body surface or between two internal organs

Dermatosis

General term used to denote any skin lesion or group of lesions, or eruptions of any type that is not associated with inflammation.

Keratosis

Any benign skin condition, such as a wart or callus, in which there is overgrowth and thickening of the epidermis.

Dermatitis

Inflammation of the skin

Contact dermatitis

Localized allergic response caused by contact with an irritant or allergen.

Pruritus

Aka itching. Associated with most forms of dermatitis

Urticaria

Aka hives. skin condition characterized by localized areas of swelling accompanied by itching that is associated with an allergic reaction.

Erythroderma

Abnormal redness of skin occurring over widespread areas of the body

Erythema

Redness or inflammation of the skin sch as a nervous blush or a mild sunburn

Xeroderma

Excessively dry skin

Psoriasis

Chronic autoimmune disorder of the skin characterized by itching and by red papules covered with silvery scales that occur predominantly on the elbows, knees, scalp, and trunk

Eczema

Inflammatory skin disease characterized by erythema, papules, vesicles, pustules, scales, crusts, and scabs alone or in combination.

Purpura

Any condition characterized by hemorrhage into the skin that causes spontaneous bruising

Abrasion

Injury in which superficial layers of skin are scraped or rubbed away.

Cellulitis

Diffuse infection of connective tissue with severe inflammation of the dermal and subcutaneous layers of the skin.

Pyodermia

Purulent (producing pus or containing pus) skin disease.

Impetigo

Contagious superficial pyoderma caused by staphylococci and streptococci

Furuncle

Aka boil. Localized skin infection originating in a gland or hair folliclel

Carbuncle

Infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue composed of a cluster of furuncles

Dermatomycosis

Superficial fungal infection of the skin.

Gangrene

Necrosis that is usually associated with a loss of circulation. Tissue death is followed by bacterial invasion and putrefaction.

Putrefication

Decay that produces foul-smelling odors

Scleroderma

Means "hard skin". Autoimmune disorder that causes abnormal tissue thickening usually starting on the fingers, hands or face.

Scabies

Skin infection caused by an infestation with the itch mite

Pediculosis

An infestation with lice. Named for body part.

Actinic keratosis

Precancerous skin lesion caused by excessive exposure to the sun. raised rough, dry, or scaly spots that are tan, brown, gray, or red.

Malignant melanoma

Aka skin cancer. Malignant neoplasm derived from cells capable of forming melanin. May occur in skin of any body part and may metastasize to the lungs, liver, and brain.

Basal cell carcinoma

Malignant tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis. Found on face. Most frequent and least harmful skin cancer. Slow growing and rarely spreads. Lesions are smooth with depression in center, pink in color, and bleed easily.

Squamous cell carcinoma

Begins as malignant tumors of the squamous cells of the epithelium. It can quickly spread to other obdy parts. Start as skin lesions that appear to be sores that won't heal or with a crusted, heaped-up look

Granuloma

General term used to describe a small knotlike swellings of granulation tissue. May result from inflammation, injury, or infection.

Granulation tissue

Normally forms during healing of wound.

Pyogenic granuloma

Small rounded mass of highly vascular granulation tissue frequently with an ulcerated surface, projecting from the skin or mucosa

Skin tags

Small flesh-covered or light brown growths that hang from the body by fine stalks. Benign and tend to enlarge with age.

Polyp

General term used most commonly to describe a mushrrom-like growth from the surface of a mucous membrane. Have many cuases and aren't necessarily malignant.

Cicatrix

"normal" scar left by a healed wound

Keloid

Abnormally raised or thickened scar

Papilloma

Benign epithelial neoplasm characterized by a branching or lobular tumor

Lipoma

Benign tumor made up of mature fat cells.

Burn

Injury to tissues of the body caused by heat, flame, electricity, chemicals, or radiation.

First degree burn

Aka superficial burns- no blisters and only superficial damage to the epidermis

Second degree burn

Aka partial thickness burns. There are blisters and damage to the epidermis and dermis.

Third degree burn

Aka full thickness burns, in which the epidermis, corium and subcutaneous layers are damaged.

Debridement

Removal of dirt, foreign objects, damaged tissue, and cell debris from a wound to prevent infection and promote healing.

Incision and drainage

Involves incision a lesion, such as an abscess, and draining the contents

Chemical peel

Chemabrasion, the use of chemicals to remove the outer layers of skin to treat acne scaring, fine wrinkling, and general keratoses

Dermabrasion

A form of abrasion involving the use of revolving wire brushes or sandpaper

Cauterization

The destruction of tissue for therapeutic purposes.

Cryosurgery

Destruction of tissue through the application of extreme cold

L.A.S.E.R.

Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. Substance (solid, liquid, or gas) stimulated to emit light that is strengthened to a specific wavelength. Wavelength of beam is key to the laser's effect on tissue.

Rhinophyma

Aka bulbous nose. Overgrowth of skin and oil glands of the nose. Treated by using a carbon dioxide laser to reshape the nose by vaporizing the excess tissue.

Port-wine stain

Treated using short pulses of laser light to remove the birthmark. Treatment may require many sessions because only a small section is treated at a time

Tattoo removal

Done by using lasers that target particular colors

Blepharoplasty

Lid lift; surgical reduction of the upper and lower eyelids.

Rhytidectomy

Face lift; surgical removal of excess skin for the elimination of wrinkles.

Liposuction

Surgical removal of fat beneath the skin which the aid of suction.

Lipectomy

Surgical removal of fat beneath the skin

Plication

Surgical procedure of taking tucks in a structure to shorten it.

sclerotherapy

Used in the treatment of spider veins, involving injection a sclerosing solution into the vein being treated. Irritates the tissue, causes swelling, and closes off the vein.

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