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Short preganglionic, long postganglionic fibers.

Sympathetic

Collateral ganglia.

Sympathetic

Increases blood pressure.

Sympathetic

Decreases heart rate.

Parasympathetic

Causes erection of the penis.

Parasympathetic

Stimulates ciliary muscles of the eye.

Parasympathetic

Active after you have eaten a meal.

Parasympathetic

Preganglionic sympathetic.

Acetylcholine

Preganglionic parasympathetic.

Acetylcholine

Postganglionic sympathetic to sweat glands.

Acetylcholine

Postganglionic parasympathetic.

Acetylcholine

Most postganglionic sympathetic.

Norepinephrine

Most body organs are innervated by only the sympathetic division of the nervous system.

False

Through direct neural stimulation, the sympathetic division promotes many metabolic effects via hormone release.

True

Cranial nerves VII, IX, and X contain postganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system.

False

In contrast to the parasympathetic division, the sympathetic division has numerous ganglionic neurons in the gray matter of the spinal cord.

False

Norepinephrine-releasing fibers are called cholingeric fibers

False

The parasympathetic division is a branch of the somatic nervous system.

False

The craniosacral division is the same as the parasympathetic division.

True

The chain ganglion, like the dorsal root ganglion, contains soma from sensory neurons.

False

Most blood vessels are innervated by the sympathetic division alone.

True

The blood vessels of the skin are one of the few areas of the body where the vessels are innervated by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

False

Events recorded in a lie detector examination are controlled by the sympathetic division.

True

All splanchnic nerves are sympathetic.

False

Splanchnic nerves pass through the abdominal plexus.

True

Since the ANS is a visceral motor system, afferent pathways are of no importance and actually are rarely found.

False

The rami communicantes are associated only with the sympathetic division of the ANS.

True

The gray rami communications consist of myelinated postganglionic fibers.

False

Splanchnic nerves are mixed motor and sensory nerves.

False

The autonomic nervous system may cause activation or inhibition, depending on the division that is active and the target that is affected.

True

The celiac ganglion is primarily associated with the sympathetic division.

True

The sympathetic chain is composed of collateral ganglia.

True

Thermoregulatory responses to increased heat are mediated by the sympathetic nervous division.

True

Most disorders of the autonomic nervous system reflect abnormalities of smooth muscle control.

True

Alpha-adrenergic effects are usually stimulatory and mediatory.

True

The adrenal medulla is considered a ʺmisplacedʺ sympathetic ganglion by some.

True

Acetylcholine is the substance released by the axonal endings of the somatic efferent fibers and by the parasympathetic nerve fiber endings.

True

The structures that specifically exhibit vasomotor tone are mostly under sympathetic control.

True

Since many of the same cardiac cells are innervated by both parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers, the influence of the two divisions on the heart is synergistic.

False

β-adrenergic receptors are the only receptors found on the heart.

False

Autonomic reflex centers occur in the spinal cord, medulla, and midbrain.

True

The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of ________.

sympathetic stimulation

In contrast to the somatic nervous system, the autonomic nervous system ________.

has two efferent neurons

Preparing the body for the ʺfight-or-flightʺ response is the role of the ________.

sympathetic nervous system

The parasympathetic nervous system is characterized by peripheral ganglia near the ________.

organs and by short postganglionic fibers

A drug that might be used specifically to reduce heart rate in cardiac patients could be ________.

a beta-blocker

The parasympathetic ganglion that serves the eye is the ________.

ciliary ganglion

Cardiovascular effects of the sympathetic division include all except ________.

dilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera

Over 90% of all parasympathetic fibers are derived from cranial nerve number ________.

X

The ʺresting and digestingʺ division of the autonomic nervous system is the ________.

parasympathetic division

Control of temperature, endocrine activity, and thirst are functions associated with the ________.

hypothalamus

Which of these effectors is not directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?

skeletal muscle

Which of the following is not a result of parasympathetic stimulation?

dilation of the pupils

The site of origin of the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system is the ________.

brain stem and the sacral region of the cord

Sympathetic responses generally are widespread because ________.

single preganglionic axons make multiple synapses with ganglionic neurons

Sympathetic nerves may leave the spinal cord at which vertebrae?

first thoracic

Autonomic ganglia contain ________.

the cell bodies of motor neurons

The parasympathetic fibers of the ________ nerves innervate smooth muscles of the lens of the eye, the muscles that cause the eye to bulge to accommodate close vision.

oculomotor

Fibers that enter and leave the sympathetic chain without synapsing form structures called ________.

splanchnic nerves

Which is not a plexus of the vagus nerve?

celiac

Visceral reflex arcs differ from somatic in that ________.

visceral arcs involve two motor neurons

The parasympathetic tone ________.

determines normal activity of the urinary tract

The autonomic nervous system ________.

is directly controlled by the reticular formation of the brain stem

The white rami ________.

carry preganglionic axons to the sympathetic chain

Beta-blockers ________.

attach mainly to the β1 receptors of cardiac muscle

Erection of the penis or clitoris ________.

is primarily under parasympathetic control

Which is a uniquely sympathetic function?

regulation of body temperature

Raynaudʹs disease ________.

is characterized by exaggerated vasoconstriction in the extremities

The mass reflex reaction ________.

represents a return of reflex activity with no controls from higher centers

In congenital megacolon (Hirschsprung's disease) ________.

the distal portion of the large intestine fails to develop parasympathetic innervation

In aging, autonomic inefficiency is often due to ________.

clogging of preganglionic axon terminals with filaments

Sympathetic fibers leave the spinal cord in the ________.

thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine

Where would you not find an autonomic ganglion?

in the armpit

Sympathetic division stimulation causes ________.

increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure

The smooth muscle of the digestive viscera is served largely by the ________.

tenth cranial nerve

The route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head is the ________.

vagus nerve

Parasympathetic functions include ________.

constriction of bronchioles

All preganglionic axons of the autonomic nervous system release ________.

the same transmitter as the one released by parasympathetic postganglionic axons

Emotions influence autonomic reactions primarily through integration in the ________.

hypothalamus

The possibility of control over autonomic responses is demonstrated by ________.

biofeedback

The vagus nerve does not innervate the ________.

parotid gland

The sympathetic division is referred to as the ________ system.

fight-or-flight

Two major classes of adrenergic receptors, ________ and ________ are found in the ANS.

alpha; beta

The ________ division causes erection of the penis and clitoris.

parasympathetic

Sweat glands are innervated by the ________ fibers alone.

sympathetic

The ________ division alone stimulates the lens of the eye.

parasympathetic

The two cholinergic receptor types are ________ and ________.

nicotinic; muscarinic

The ________ receptor type is used by the heart, and when activated increases heart rate.

β1

The only sympathetic preganglionic neuron to go directly to an organ is one branch of the ________ splanchnic nerve.

greater

Pain from the diaphragm will be referred to the anterior cutaneous area of the ________.

neck

The parasympathetic division uses only ________ as a neurotransmitter in the ganglionic neurons.

acetylcholine

How are the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions different?

1. They have unique origin sites.
2. They have different lengths of pre- and postganglionic axons.
3. Their ganglia are located in different areas.

In what ways are the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system different?

1. The autonomic is a two-neuron system; the somatic uses one.
2. The autonomic uses smaller neuron fibers (type B or C); the somatic generally uses the type A fibers.
3. The autonomic is mostly involuntary and automatic; the somatic is voluntary.
4. The autonomic uses several neurotransmitters and many receptor types; the somatic uses only one.
5. The autonomic is a slow system; the somatic is a fast system.
6. The autonomic has opposing forces to regulate the body; the somatic does not.

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