close to point of attachment
far from point of attachment
away from midline
close to surface
toward interior of body
deals with the structure (morphology) of the body and its parts, in other words, "what are things called?"
studies the functions of these parts or asks the questions "how do they work?"
chemical (structural levels of body)
smallest level, atom
cell (structural levels of body)
basic unit of life
tissue (structural levels of body)
group of cells with similar structure and function plus extracellular substance
organ (structural levels of body)
2 or more tissue types (largest= heart)
requirements of organisms
water, food, oxygen, heat, pressure (quality and quantitiy)
maintenance of a stable internal enviornment
anything that takes up mass
most abundant elements
oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen
formed when atoms share electrons
occurs as bonds are formed or broken between atoms, ions, or molecules
formed by oppositely charged ions which attract eachother
energy in motion
energy stored in chemical bonds (food)
sugar found in food, used to make ATP
stored glucose, stored in liver, skeletal muscle, fat
"Adenosine Triphosphate" stored energy
compounds that contain both hydrogen and carbon
provide energy for cellular activity. made from monoacchrides
2 monosaccaride joined together
complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides)
built of many sugars (starch)
functions of carbohydrates
short-term energy storage, converted to glucose quickly.
contains carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. built up of amino acids.
20 different types. contain an amine group and carboxyl group. amino acids are not stored so a daily supply is required
functions of proteins
used to make skin, hair, nails, muscles, and hemoglobin. act as enzymes, immune system functions. muscle contractions (actin and myosin), and part of cell membrane.
characteristics of lipids
contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. (ex. fats, oils, cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids) Glycerol and fatty acids are the building blocks. Insoluable in water
why are lipids (fats) insoluable in water?
because of the polarity. fats don't like water
functions of lipids
long term energy storage, insulates against heat loss, protective cushion for organs, cholesterol is part of the cell membrane structure
types of lipids
saturated and unsaturated
single covalent bonds between carbon atoms (ex. beef, pork, whole milk, cheese, eggs)
one or more double covalent bonds between carbons (ex. olive oil, fish oil, sunflower oil) healthier
form genes and take part in protein synthesis. they are bound into building blocks called nucleotides. DNA and RNA
(deoxyribonucleic acid) stores the molecular code in genes
(ribonucleic acid) functions in protein synthesis.
composed of nitrogen base, phosphate, and 5 carbon sugar
4 main parts of a cell
organelles, the nucleus, cytoplasm, and the cell membrane
perform specific funtions for the cell (nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondria)
jelly like, holds organelles
4 functions of the cell
cell metabolism and energy use, synthesis of molecules, communication, reproduction and inheritance
outter most component of a cell
functions of the cell membrane
selective barrier, encloses cytoplasm
material outside cell
material inside the cell
fluid mosaic model
structure of cell membrane- made of phospholipids and several types of proteins.
form a double layer or bilayer. contain 2 regions; polar and nonpolar (fatty acid tail)
passive movement through cell membrane
requiring no energy from the cell (diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, and filtration) from region of higher to lower concentration
active movement through cell membrame
requiring cellular energy (active transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis)
random movement of molecules from areas of high to low concentration
uses trans-membrane proteins that function as carriers to move larger molecules (such as glucose) across the cell membrane, from region of higher to lower concentration
process that brings materials into cell using vesicles, vesicles fuses with cell membrane. 2- phagocytosis (cell eating)/ pinocytosis (cell drinking)
process that carries materials out of cell using vesicles, vesicles fuse with cell membrane
limited number of cell divisions
death genes theory
turned on later in life
leads to cell degeneration and death
unpaired electrons lead to nuclear DNA mutations
Mitochondrial DNA damage
loss of cellular energy production
cell metabolism and energy use
chemical reations release energy used for cell activities
synthesis of molecules
proteins, lipids, nucleic acids... different cells= different molecules
muscle cells "talk" to other muscle cells, nerve cells "talk" to nerve cells, nerve cells "talk" to muscle cells...
a group of cells with similar structure and function plus a non-living portion called the extracellular matrix
the study of tissue
attaches epithelial tissue to underlying tissues made of a meshwork of protein and other molecules. mostly proteins, stick epithelial tissue to connective tissue
free cell surface
surface not in contact with other cell, smooth to reduce friction
to increase cell's surface area
to move materials across cell's surface
bind adjacent cells together
mechanical links that bind cells
bind cells to bind cells to basement membrane
small channels that- allow molecules to pass between cells, allow cells to communicate/ coordinate, are the most common
functions of epithelial tissues
protect, act as a barrier, diffusion, secretion, absorption
look like ropes and are flexible but resist stretching
supporting network that branches, fills spaces between organs and tissues
recoil after being stretched
gel-like background material in connective tissue
break down for remodeling
connect bone to muscle
connect bone to bone
functions of connective tissue
enclose and seperate, connect tissues, support and movement, storage, cushion and insulate, transport, and protect
most rigid connective tissue, with deposits of mineral salts and collagen within the matrix. internally supports the body, protects, forms muscle attachments and is the site for blood cell formation.
3 types of mucle tissue
skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle tissue
striped or stranded
the skin, also called the integumentary system. composed of stratified and dense connective tissues
line cavities and openings that lead to the outside of the body. consist of epithelium and connective tissue with specialized goblet cells that secrete mucus, including the oral and nasal cavities, and openings of the digestive, reproductive, respiratory, and urinary systems.
line body cavities and cover organs that ack opening to the outside. made up of epithelium and loose tissue. secrete serous fluid that acts as a lubricant for organs that rub against one anotheral.
line the joint cavities, consist of only connective tissues. line inside of joint cavities, secrete lubricating synovial fluid.
occurs when tissues are damaged through infection or trauma
released after injury, cause dialation of blood vessels
symptoms of inflammation
redness, heat, swelling, pain, pus
substitution of dead cells with viable cells
cells of same type develop (no scar), primarily by stem cell, normal function is restored
cells of a different type develop (scar), loss of some tissue function, adult heart, brain, cardiac/skeletal muscle
person standing erect with face and palms forward
person laying face up
person laying face down
upper arm, forearm, wrist, hand
thigh, lower leg, ankle, foot
head, neck, trunk
thoracic (chest), abdomin, pelvis
runs vertivally ans seperates body into left and right
runs down the middle and divides body into equal left and right halves
runs horizontally and separates body into top and bottom
runs vertically and separates body into anterior and posterior
heart, lungs, thymus gland, esophagus, trachea
divides thoracic cavity into left and right
stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys
urinary bladder, reproductive organs, part of large intestine.
around the heart
around the lungs
around the abdominopelvic cavity
lines cavity walls
secretes a think layer of fluid (serous) seperates the 2 layers
double- layered membrane that covers organs and anchors them to body wall
protection, sensation, temperature regulation, excretion, vitamin D production
1st major skin region (outside). composed of stratified squamous epithelium. outermost cells protect deeper replicating cells
process in which new cells push old cells to surface. (40-56 days for new cells to move to free surface.
permeability barrier, abrasion resistance
produced by melanocytes, ranges from yellow to reddish- brown to black. responsible for hair and eye color and provides protection against UV light. amount produced determined by genetics, UV light, hormones
accumulation of melanin
absence of melanin
yellow- orange pigment found in plants. accumulates in stratun corneum
gives pinkish-red color, found in red blood cells
skin color and disease
redness, pallor, jaundice, bronzing, bruising
exposure to UV light
stimulates melanocytes to increase production of melanin
the skin reacting to UV exposure
basal cell carcinoma
most common type. Cells in stratum affected, extend into dermis, cancer removed by surgery
squamous cell carcinoma
cells directly above stratum basal affected. Tumor can invade, metastasize and cause death
rare type. Arises from melanocytes in a mole, metastasis is common and often causes death
flexible strands of keritinized cells. Medulla is surrounded by hard cortex and covered by cuticle
base of root, where hair is produced
group of cells that surroud root and bulb. EXTENSION OF EPIDERMIS, DEEP IN DERMIS
smooth muscle that surrounds each hair follicle. Contracts, hair becomes more perpendicular to skin and hairstands on end GOOSE BUMPS!
connected to hair follicle. Secretes sebum, oily substance that lubricates hair and skin to prevent drying (causes acne)
all over body and open into sweat pores. Water and salt secretions
open into hair follicle. Only in armpit and genitalia. Thick, rich secretion, become active during puberty and cause body odor.
thin plates with layers of deat stratum corneum cells with hard keratin (unlike hair grow continually)
covered by skin
stratum corneum that extends into nail body
continuation of nail root, gives rises to most of nail
attaches to nail and is distal to nail matrix
small part of nail matrix, whitish/ crescent shaped are. Base of nail
1st degree burn
damages only epidermis. Redness, slight edema, pain. heals within 2-3 days (usually no scar). Includes sunburns or exposure to cold.
gets off the mutated nucleus
2nd degree burn
damages epidermis and upper dermis. Redness, edema, pain, blisters. heals in 2 weeks with some scarring. epidermis regenerates from epithelial tissue in hair follicles, sweat glands
3rd degree burn
destroys all epidermis and dermis. Burned areas are cherry red to clack to white. painless, nerve endings are destroyed. disfiguring, debilitating. skin graft might be necessaru (split skin, cadaver, artificial)
support, protect, movement, storage, blood cell production
reduce friction and model for bone formation
large polysaccharides (carbohydrates) attached to proteins, part of ground substance, story water
bone's extracellular matrix consists of...
proteoglycans, collagen, water, and minerals
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