5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- positive reinforcer
- higher order conditioning
- escape extinction
- rule-governed behavior
- metonymical (tact) extension
- a A tact evoked by a novel stimulus that shares none of the relevant features of the original stimulus configuration, but some irrelevant yet related feature has acquired stimulus control.
- b Behaviors maintained with negative reinforcement are placed on escape extinction when those behaviors are not followed by termination of the aversive stimulus; eliminating the target behavior does not enable the person to escape the aversive situation.
- c Behavior controlled by a rule (i.e. verbal statement of an antecedent-behavior-consequence contingency); enables human behavior (e.g. fastening a seatbelt) to come under the indirect control of temporally remote or improbable but potentially significant consequences (e.g. avoiding injury in an auto accident). Often used in contrast to contingency-shaped behavior, a term used to indicate behavior selected and maintained by controlled, temporally close consequences.
- d A stimulus whose presentation or onset functions as reinforcement.
- e Development of a conditioned reflex by pairing of a neutral stimulus (NS) with a conditioned stimulus (CS). Also called secondary conditioning.
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- An operant that occurs more frequently under some antecedent conditions than under others.
- An environmental variable that, as a result of a learning history, establishes (or abolished) the reinforcing effectiveness of another stimulus and evokes (or abates) the behavior that has been reinforced by that other stimulus.
- An alternation in the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus, object, or event as a result of a motivating operation. For example, the reinforcing effectiveness of food is altered as a result of food deprivation and food ingestion.
- A stimulus change that decreases the future frequency of behavior that immediately precedes it.
- Occurs when a stimulus change immediately follows a response and increases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions.
5 True/False Questions
respondent conditioning → The basic process by which operant learning occurs; consequences (stimulus changes immediately following responses) result in an increased (reinforcement) or decreased (punishment) frequency of the same type of behavior under similar motivational and environmental conditions in the future.
reinforcer → Occurs when a stimulus change immediately follows a response and increases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions.
verbal behavior → Behavior whose reinforcement is mediated by a listener; includes both vocal-verbal behavior (e.g. saying "Water, please" to get water) and nonvocal-verbal behavior (pointing to glass of water to get water). Encompasses the subject matter usually treated as language and topics such as thinking grammar, composition, and understanding.
sensory extinction → Behaviors maintained with negative reinforcement are placed on escape extinction when those behaviors are not followed by termination of the aversive stimulus; eliminating the target behavior does not enable the person to escape the aversive situation.
multiple exemplar training → A verbal statement summarizing the results of an experiment (or group of related experiments) that describes the occurrence of the phenomena under study as a function of the operation of one or more specified and controlled variables in the experiment in which a specific change in one event (the dependent variable) can be produced by manipulating another event (the independent variable), and that the change in the dependent variable was unlikely the result of other factors (confounding variables); in behavior analysis expressed as b = f(x1), (x2)..., where b is the behavior and x1, x2, etc. are environmental variables of which the behavior is a function.