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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. punishment
  2. phylogeny
  3. stimulus-stimulus pairing
  4. reflexive conditioned motivating operation
  5. conditioned reinforcer
  1. a A stimulus change that functions as a reinforcer because of prior pairing with one or more other reinforcers: sometimes called secondary or learned reinforcer.
  2. b A procedure in which two stimuli are presented at the same time, usually repeatedly for a number of trials, which often results in one stimulus acquiring the function of the other stimulus.
  3. c A stimulus that acquires motivating operation (MO) effectiveness by preceding some form of worsening or improvement. It is exemplified by the warning stimulus in a typical escape-avoidance procedure, which establishes its own offset as reinforcement evokes all behavior that has accomplished that offset.
  4. d Occurs when stimulus change immediately follows a response and decreases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions.
  5. e The history of the natural evolution of a species.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. A motivating operation whose value-altering effect depends on a learning history. For example, because of the relation between locked doors and keys, having to open a locked door is a conditioned motivating operation (CMO) that makes keys more effective as reinforcers, and evokes behavior that has obtained such keys.
  2. A stimulus whose termination (or reduction of intensity) functions as a reinforcer.
  3. An environmental condition or stimulus change exiting or occurring prior to a behavior of interest.
  4. The state of an organism with respect to how much time has elapsed since it has consumed or contacted a particular type of reinforcer; also refers to a procedure for increasing the effectiveness of a reinforcer (e.g. withholding a person's access to a reinforcer for a specified period of time prior to a session).
  5. An environmental variable that, as a result of a learning history, establishes (or abolished) the reinforcing effectiveness of another stimulus and evokes (or abates) the behavior that has been reinforced by that other stimulus.

5 True/False questions

  1. stimulus equivalenceThe emergence of accurate responding to untrained and nonreinforced stimulus-stimulus relations following the reinforcement of responses to some stimulus-stimulus relations. A positive demonstration of reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity is necessary to meet the definition of equivalence.


  2. textualAn elementary verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by a verbal discriminative stimulus that has point-to-point correspondence, but not formal similarity, between the stimulus and the response product.


  3. audienceThe history of the development of an individual organism during its lifetime.


  4. unconditioned negative reinforcerA stimulus that functions as a negative reinforcer as a result of the evolutionary development of the species (phylogeny); no prior learning is involved (e.g. shock, loud noise, intense light, extreme temperatures, strong pressure against the body).


  5. neutral stimulusIn general, an unpleasant or noxious stimulus; more technically, a stimulus change or condition that functions (a) to evoke a behavior that has terminated it in the past; (b) as a punisher when presented following behavior, and/or (c) as a reinforcer when withdrawn following behavior.


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