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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. antecedent stimulus class
  2. naturally existing contingency
  3. automatic reinforcement
  4. generalization
  5. negative reinforcer
  1. a A set of stimuli that share a common relationship. All stimuli in the set evoke the same operant behavior, or elicit the same respondent behavior.
  2. b A stimulus whose termination (or reduction of intensity) functions as a reinforcer.
  3. c Any contingency of reinforcement (or punishment) that operates independent of the behavior analyst's or practitioner's efforts; includes socially mediated contingencies contrived by other people and already in effect in the relevant setting.
  4. d Reinforcement that occurs independent of the social mediation of others (.e.g. scratching an insect bite relieves the itch).
  5. e The occurrence of relevant behavior under different, nontraining conditions (i.e. across subjects, settings, people, behaviors, and/or time) without the scheduling of the same events in those conditions.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. An environmental variable that, as a result of a learning history, establishes (or abolished) the reinforcing effectiveness of another stimulus and evokes (or abates) the behavior that has been reinforced by that other stimulus.
  2. A behavioral effect associated with extinction in which the behavior suddenly begins to occur after its frequency has decreased to its prereinforcement level or stopped entirely.
  3. Behavior controlled by a rule (i.e. verbal statement of an antecedent-behavior-consequence contingency); enables human behavior (e.g. fastening a seatbelt) to come under the indirect control of temporally remote or improbable but potentially significant consequences (e.g. avoiding injury in an auto accident). Often used in contrast to contingency-shaped behavior, a term used to indicate behavior selected and maintained by controlled, temporally close consequences.
  4. Any place or stimulus situation that differs in some meaningful way from the instructional setting and in which performance of the target behavior is desired.
  5. Someone who engages in verbal behavior by emitting mands, tacts, intraverbals, autoclitics, and so on. A speaker is also someone who uses sign language, gestures, signals, written words, codes, pictures, or any form of verbal behavior.

5 True/False questions

  1. unpairingAn elementary verbal operant that is evoked by a motivating operation (MO) and followed by specific reinforcement.


  2. stimulus-stimulus pairingThe emergence of accurate responding to untrained and nonreinforced stimulus-stimulus relations following the reinforcement of responses to some stimulus-stimulus relations. A positive demonstration of reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity is necessary to meet the definition of equivalence.


  3. response classA group of responses of varying topography, all of which produce the same effect on the environment.


  4. setting generalizationWhen an antecedent stimulus has a history of evoking a response that has been reinforced in its presence, the same type of behavior tends to be evoked by stimuli that share similar physical properties with the controlling antecedent stimulus.


  5. generalized conditioned reinforcerA stimulus that functions as a negative reinforcer as a result of the evolutionary development of the species (phylogeny); no prior learning is involved (e.g. shock, loud noise, intense light, extreme temperatures, strong pressure against the body).


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