5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- stimulus-stimulus pairing
- reflexive conditioned motivating operation
- conditioned reinforcer
- a A stimulus change that functions as a reinforcer because of prior pairing with one or more other reinforcers: sometimes called secondary or learned reinforcer.
- b A procedure in which two stimuli are presented at the same time, usually repeatedly for a number of trials, which often results in one stimulus acquiring the function of the other stimulus.
- c A stimulus that acquires motivating operation (MO) effectiveness by preceding some form of worsening or improvement. It is exemplified by the warning stimulus in a typical escape-avoidance procedure, which establishes its own offset as reinforcement evokes all behavior that has accomplished that offset.
- d Occurs when stimulus change immediately follows a response and decreases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions.
- e The history of the natural evolution of a species.
5 Multiple choice questions
- A motivating operation whose value-altering effect depends on a learning history. For example, because of the relation between locked doors and keys, having to open a locked door is a conditioned motivating operation (CMO) that makes keys more effective as reinforcers, and evokes behavior that has obtained such keys.
- A stimulus whose termination (or reduction of intensity) functions as a reinforcer.
- An environmental condition or stimulus change exiting or occurring prior to a behavior of interest.
- The state of an organism with respect to how much time has elapsed since it has consumed or contacted a particular type of reinforcer; also refers to a procedure for increasing the effectiveness of a reinforcer (e.g. withholding a person's access to a reinforcer for a specified period of time prior to a session).
- An environmental variable that, as a result of a learning history, establishes (or abolished) the reinforcing effectiveness of another stimulus and evokes (or abates) the behavior that has been reinforced by that other stimulus.
5 True/False questions
stimulus equivalence → The emergence of accurate responding to untrained and nonreinforced stimulus-stimulus relations following the reinforcement of responses to some stimulus-stimulus relations. A positive demonstration of reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity is necessary to meet the definition of equivalence.
textual → An elementary verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by a verbal discriminative stimulus that has point-to-point correspondence, but not formal similarity, between the stimulus and the response product.
audience → The history of the development of an individual organism during its lifetime.
unconditioned negative reinforcer → A stimulus that functions as a negative reinforcer as a result of the evolutionary development of the species (phylogeny); no prior learning is involved (e.g. shock, loud noise, intense light, extreme temperatures, strong pressure against the body).
neutral stimulus → In general, an unpleasant or noxious stimulus; more technically, a stimulus change or condition that functions (a) to evoke a behavior that has terminated it in the past; (b) as a punisher when presented following behavior, and/or (c) as a reinforcer when withdrawn following behavior.