5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- discriminated operant
- positive reinforcement
- behavioral contrast
- value-altering effect
- respondent behavior
- a An alternation in the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus, object, or event as a result of a motivating operation. For example, the reinforcing effectiveness of food is altered as a result of food deprivation and food ingestion.
- b Occurs when a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior in similar conditions.
- c The response component of the stimulus-response reflex.
- d The phenomenon in which a change in one component of a multiple schedule that increases or decreases the rate of responding on that component is accompanied by a change in the response rate in the opposite direction on the other, unaltered component of the schedule.
- e An operant that occurs more frequently under some antecedent conditions than under others.
5 Multiple choice questions
- A contingency that makes it difficult for the learner to discriminate whether the next response will produce reinforcement. Practitioners use indiscriminable contingencies in the form of intermittent schedules of reinforcement and delayed rewards to promote generalized behavior change.
- Instruction that provides the learner with practice with a variety of stimulus conditions, response variations, and response topographies to ensure the acquisition of desired stimulus controls response forms; used to promote both settings/situation generalization and response generalization.
- The process by which behaviors maintained by automatic reinforcement are placed on extinction by masking or removing the sensory consequences.
- A behavior controlled by any physical movement that serves as a novel model excluding vocal-verbal behavior has formal similarity with the model and immediately follows the occurrence of the model (e.g. within seconds of the model presentation). An imitative behavior is a new behavior emitted following a novel antecedent event (i.e. the model).
- A single instance or occurrence of a specific class or type of behavior. Technical definition: an action of an organism's effector. An effector is an organ at the end of an efferent nerve fiber that is specialized for altering its environment mechanically, chemically, or in terms of other energy changes.
5 True/False questions
conditioned reinforcer → A stimulus whose termination (or reduction of intensity) functions as a reinforcer.
behavior chain → A sequence of responses in which each response produces a stimulus change that functions as conditioned reinforcement for that response and as a discriminative stimulus for the next response in the series; reinforcement for the last response in a maintains the reinforcing effectiveness of the stimulus changes produced by all previous responses in the series.
symmetry → A type of stimulus-to-stimulus relationship in which the learner, without prior training or reinforcement for doing so, demonstrates the reversibility of matched sample and comparison stimuli (e.g. if A = B, then B = A). Symmetry would be demonstrated in the following matching-to-sample procedure: The learner is taught, when presented with the spoken word car (sample stimulus A), to select a comparison picture of a car (comparison B). When presented with the picture of a car (sample stimulus B), without additional training or reinforcement, the learner selects the comparison spoken word car (comparison A).
phylogeny → Refers to dependent and/or temporal relations between operant behavior and its controlling variables.
antecedent stimulus class → Antecedent stimuli that evoke the same response but do not resemble each other in physical form or share a relational aspect such as bigger or under (e.g. peanuts, cheese, coconut milk, and chicken breasts if they evoke the responses "sources of protein).