5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- resistance to extinction
- respondent conditioning
- functional relation
- operant behavior
- a The relative frequency with which operant behavior is emitted during extinction.
- b The occurrence of relevant behavior under different, nontraining conditions (i.e. across subjects, settings, people, behaviors, and/or time) without the scheduling of the same events in those conditions.
- c A verbal statement summarizing the results of an experiment (or group of related experiments) that describes the occurrence of the phenomena under study as a function of the operation of one or more specified and controlled variables in the experiment in which a specific change in one event (the dependent variable) can be produced by manipulating another event (the independent variable), and that the change in the dependent variable was unlikely the result of other factors (confounding variables); in behavior analysis expressed as b = f(x1), (x2)..., where b is the behavior and x1, x2, etc. are environmental variables of which the behavior is a function.
- d Behavior that is selected, maintained, and brought under stimulus control as a function of its consequences: each person's repertoire of operant behavior is a product of his history of interactions with the environment (ontogeny).
- e A stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure in which a neutral stimulus (NS) is presented with an unconditioned stimulus (US) until the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that elicits the conditioned response. Also called classical conditioning or Pavlovian conditioning.
5 Multiple choice questions
- An environmental variable that, as a result of a learning history, establishes (or abolished) the reinforcing effectiveness of another stimulus and evokes (or abates) the behavior that has been reinforced by that other stimulus.
- The extent to which a learner continues to perform the target behavior after a portion or all of the intervention responsible for the behavior's initial appearance in the learner's repertoire has been terminated. Often called maintenance, durability, behavioral persistence, and (incorrectly) resistance to extinction.
- A contingency that makes it difficult for the learner to discriminate whether the next response will produce reinforcement. Practitioners use indiscriminable contingencies in the form of intermittent schedules of reinforcement and delayed rewards to promote generalized behavior change.
- A group of responses of varying topography, all of which produce the same effect on the environment.
- A response behavior is followed immediately by the removal of a stimulus (or a decrease in the intensity of the stimulus), that decreases the future frequency of similar responses under similar conditions; sometimes called Type II punishment.
5 True/False questions
reinforcer-abolishing effect → A decrease in the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus, object, or event caused by a motivating operation. For example, food ingestion abolishes (decreases) the reinforcing effectiveness of food.
concept formation → The discontinuing of a reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior (i.e. responses no longer produce reinforcement); the primary effect is a decrease in the frequency of the behavior until it reaches a prereinforced level or ultimately ceases to occur.
establishing operation → A motivating operation that establishes (increases) the effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event as a reinforcer. For example, food deprivation establishes food as an effective reinforcer.
stimulus-stimulus pairing → A group of stimuli that share specified common elements along formal (e.g. size, color), temporal (e.g. antecedent or consequent), and/or functional (e.g. discriminative stimulus) dimensions.
generalized conditioned punisher → A stimulus change that, as a result of having been paired with many other punishers, functions as punishment under most conditions because it is free from the control of motivating conditions for specific types of punishment.