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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. escape extinction
  2. stimulus
  3. response class
  4. unpairing
  5. lag reinforcement schedule
  1. a An energy change that affects an organism through its receptor cells.
  2. b Two kinds: (a) The occurrence alone of a stimulus that acquired its function by being paired with an already effective stimulus, or (b) the occurrence of the stimulus in the absence as well as in the presence of the effective stimulus. Both kinds of unpairing undo the result of the pairing: the occurrence alone of the stimulus that became a conditioned reinforcer; and the occurrence of the unconditioned reinforcer in the absence as well as in the presence of the conditioned reinforcer.
  3. c Behaviors maintained with negative reinforcement are placed on escape extinction when those behaviors are not followed by termination of the aversive stimulus; eliminating the target behavior does not enable the person to escape the aversive situation.
  4. d A schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement is contingent on a response being different in some specified way (e.g. different topography) from the previous response or a specified number of previous responses or more).
  5. e A group of responses of varying topography, all of which produce the same effect on the environment.

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Punishment that occurs independent of the social mediation by others (i.e. response product serves as a punisher independent of the social environment).
  2. The conglomerate of real circumstances in which the organism or referenced part of the organism exists; behavior cannot occur in the absence of environment.
  3. An increase in the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus, object, or event caused by a motivating operation. For example, food deprivation establishes (increases) the reinforcing effectiveness or food.
  4. A tactic for promoting setting/situation generalization by making the instructional setting similar to the generalization setting: the two-step process involves (a) identifying salient stimuli that characterize the generalization setting and (2) incorporating those stimuli into the instructional setting.
  5. The occurrence of a previously punished type of response without its punishing consequence. This procedure is analogous to the extinction of previously reinforced behavior and has the effect of undoing the effect of punishment.

5 True/False Questions

  1. arbitrary stimulus classAntecedent stimuli that evoke the same response but do not resemble each other in physical form or share a relational aspect such as bigger or under (e.g. peanuts, cheese, coconut milk, and chicken breasts if they evoke the responses "sources of protein).


  2. generalized conditioned punisherA stimulus change that, as a result of having been paired with many other punishers, functions as punishment under most conditions because it is free from the control of motivating conditions for specific types of punishment.


  3. formal similarityA situation that occurs when the controlling antecedent stimulus and the response or response product (a) share the same sense mode (e.g. both stimulus and response are visual, auditory or tactile) and (b) physically resemble each other. The verbal relations with formal similarity are echoic, coping a text, and imitation as it relates to sign language.


  4. negative reinforcerA stimulus change that increases the future frequency of behavior that immediately precedes it.


  5. evocative effectAn increase in the current frequency of behavior that has been reinforced by the stimulus that is increased in reinforcing effectiveness by the same motivating operation. For example, food deprivation evokes (increases the current frequency of) behavior that has been reinforced by food.


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