5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- point-to-point correspondence
- conditioned stimulus
- metonymical (tact) extension
- positive reinforcement
- a The stimulus component of a conditioned reflex; a formerly neutral stimulus change that elicits respondent behavior only after it has been paried with an unconditioned stimulus (US) or another conditioned stimulus (CS).
- b A decrease in the frequency of operant behavior presumed to be the result of continued contact with or consumption of a reinforcer that has followed the behavior; also refers to a procedure for reducing the effectiveness of a reinforcer (e.g. presenting a person with copious amounts of a reinforcing stimulus prior to a session).
- c A tact evoked by a novel stimulus that shares none of the relevant features of the original stimulus configuration, but some irrelevant yet related feature has acquired stimulus control.
- d A relation between the stimulus and response or response product that occurs when the beginning, middle, and end of the verbal stimulus matches the beginning, middle, and end of the verbal response. Verbal relation examples include echoic, copying a text, imitation as it relates to sign language, textual, and transcription.
- e Occurs when a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior in similar conditions.
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- Two kinds: (a) The occurrence alone of a stimulus that acquired its function by being paired with an already effective stimulus, or (b) the occurrence of the stimulus in the absence as well as in the presence of the effective stimulus. Both kinds of unpairing undo the result of the pairing: the occurrence alone of the stimulus that became a conditioned reinforcer; and the occurrence of the unconditioned reinforcer in the absence as well as in the presence of the conditioned reinforcer.
- Describes reinforcement (or punishment) that is delivered only after the target behavior has occurred.
- An increase in the frequency of responding when an extinction procedure is initially implemented.
- A graphic depiction of the extent to which behavior has been reinforced in the presence of a specific stimulus condition is emitted in the presence of other stimuli. The gradient shows relative degree of stimulus generalization and stimulus control (or discrimination). A flat slope across test stimuli shows a high degree of stimulus generalization and relatively little discrimination between the trained stimulus and other stimuli: a slope that drops sharply from its highest point corresponding to the trained stimulus indicates a high degree of stimulus control (discrimination) and relatively little stimulus generalization.
- Any contingency of reinforcement (or punishment) designed and implemented by a behavior analyst or practitioner to achieve the acquisition, maintenance, and/or generalization of a targeted behavior change.
5 True/False Questions
intraverbal → An elementary verbal operant that is evoked by a verbal discriminative stimulus that does not have point-to-point correspondence with that verbal stimulus.
transcription → An elementary verbal operant involving a spoken verbal stimulus that evokes a written, typed, or finger-spelled response. Like the textual, there is point-to-point correspondence between the stimulus and the response product, but no formal similarity.
formal similarity → A situation that occurs when the controlling antecedent stimulus and the response or response product (a) share the same sense mode (e.g. both stimulus and response are visual, auditory or tactile) and (b) physically resemble each other. The verbal relations with formal similarity are echoic, coping a text, and imitation as it relates to sign language.
establishing operation → A motivating operation that establishes (increases) the effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event as a reinforcer. For example, food deprivation establishes food as an effective reinforcer.
stimulus-stimulus pairing → The emergence of accurate responding to untrained and nonreinforced stimulus-stimulus relations following the reinforcement of responses to some stimulus-stimulus relations. A positive demonstration of reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity is necessary to meet the definition of equivalence.