5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- operant behavior
- instructional setting
- stimulus delta
- a A type of stimulus-to-stimulus relation in which the learner, without any prior training or reinforcement for doing so, selects a comparison stimulus that is the same as the sample stimulus (e.g. A-A). Reflexivity would be demonstrated in the following matching-to-sample procedure: the sample stimulus is a picture of a tree, and the three comparison stimuli are a picture of a mouse, a picture of a cookie, and a duplicate of the tree picture used as the sample stimulus. The learner selects the picture of the tree without specific reinforcement in the past for making the tree-picture-to-tree-picture match. It is also called generalized identity matching.
- b Behavior that is selected, maintained, and brought under stimulus control as a function of its consequences: each person's repertoire of operant behavior is a product of his history of interactions with the environment (ontogeny).
- c A stimulus in the presence of which a given behavior has not produced reinforcement in the past.
- d The environment where instruction occurs; includes all aspects of the environment, planned and unplanned, that may influence the learner's acquisition and generalization of the target behavior.
- e An elementary verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by a verbal discriminative stimulus that has point-to-point correspondence, but not formal similarity, between the stimulus and the response product.
5 Multiple choice questions
- When the occurrence of a single verbal response is a function of more than one variable and what is said has more than one antecedent source of control.
- Antecedent stimuli that evoke the same response but do not resemble each other in physical form or share a relational aspect such as bigger or under (e.g. peanuts, cheese, coconut milk, and chicken breasts if they evoke the responses "sources of protein).
- An operant that occurs more frequently under some antecedent conditions than under others.
- Reinforcement that occurs independent of the social mediation of others (.e.g. scratching an insect bite relieves the itch).
- A stimulus change that follows a behavior of interest. Some consequences, especially those that are immediate and relevant to current motivational states, have significant influence on future behavior; others have little effect.
5 True/False questions
conditioned reflex → A learned stimulus-response functional relation consisting of an antecedent stimulus (e.g. sound or refrigerator door opening) and the response it elicits (e.g. salivation); each person's repertoire of conditioned reflexes is the product of his or her history of interactions with the environment (ontogeny).
unconditioned motivating operation → An environmental variable that, as a result of a learning history, establishes (or abolished) the reinforcing effectiveness of another stimulus and evokes (or abates) the behavior that has been reinforced by that other stimulus.
escape extinction → A decrease in the frequency of operant behavior presumed to be the result of continued contact with or consumption of a reinforcer that has followed the behavior; also refers to a procedure for reducing the effectiveness of a reinforcer (e.g. presenting a person with copious amounts of a reinforcing stimulus prior to a session).
transcription → An elementary verbal operant involving a spoken verbal stimulus that evokes a written, typed, or finger-spelled response. Like the textual, there is point-to-point correspondence between the stimulus and the response product, but no formal similarity.
resistance to extinction → The relative frequency with which operant behavior is emitted during extinction.