5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- reinforcer-abolishing effect
- negative reinforcement
- discriminative stimulus for punishment
- surrogate conditioned motivating operation
- a A behavior controlled by any physical movement that serves as a novel model excluding vocal-verbal behavior has formal similarity with the model and immediately follows the occurrence of the model (e.g. within seconds of the model presentation). An imitative behavior is a new behavior emitted following a novel antecedent event (i.e. the model).
- b A decrease in the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus, object, or event caused by a motivating operation. For example, food ingestion abolishes (decreases) the reinforcing effectiveness of food.
- c A stimulus condition in the presence of which a response has a lower probability of occurrence than it does in its absence as a result of response-contingent punishment delivery in the presence of the stimulus.
- d Occurs when a behavior is followed by the withdrawal or termination of a stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior in similar conditions.
- e A stimulus that acquires its motivating operation (MO) effectiveness by being paired with another motivating operation (MO) and has the same value-altering and behavior-altering effects as the motivating operation (MO) with which it was paired.
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- Any measurement of a learner's performance of a target behavior in a setting and/or stimulus situation in which direct training has not been provided.
- A metaphor to describe a rate of responding and its resistance to change following an alteration in reinforcement conditions. The momentum metaphor has also been used to describe the effects produced by the high-probability (high-p) request sequence.
- The occurrence of relevant behavior under different, nontraining conditions (i.e. across subjects, settings, people, behaviors, and/or time) without the scheduling of the same events in those conditions.
- The end product of shaping.
- A graphic depiction of the extent to which behavior has been reinforced in the presence of a specific stimulus condition is emitted in the presence of other stimuli. The gradient shows relative degree of stimulus generalization and stimulus control (or discrimination). A flat slope across test stimuli shows a high degree of stimulus generalization and relatively little discrimination between the trained stimulus and other stimuli: a slope that drops sharply from its highest point corresponding to the trained stimulus indicates a high degree of stimulus control (discrimination) and relatively little stimulus generalization.
5 True/False Questions
principle of behavior → A statement describing a functional relation between behavior and one or more of its controlling variables with generality across organisms, species, settings, behaviors, and time (e.g. extinction, positive reinforcement); an empirical generalization inferred from many experiments demonstrating the same functional relation.
lag reinforcement schedule → A schedule of reinforcement in which reinforcement is contingent on a response being different in some specified way (e.g. different topography) from the previous response or a specified number of previous responses or more).
discriminated operant → An operant that occurs more frequently under some antecedent conditions than under others.
generalized conditioned reinforcer → A conditioned reinforcer that as a result of having been paired with many other reinforcers does not depend on an establishing operation for any particular form of reinforcement for its effectiveness.
copying a text → An elementary verbal operant that is evoked by a nonvocal verbal discriminative stimulus that has point-to-point correspondence and formal similarity with the controlling response.