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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. reflexivity
  2. operant behavior
  3. instructional setting
  4. textual
  5. stimulus delta
  1. a A type of stimulus-to-stimulus relation in which the learner, without any prior training or reinforcement for doing so, selects a comparison stimulus that is the same as the sample stimulus (e.g. A-A). Reflexivity would be demonstrated in the following matching-to-sample procedure: the sample stimulus is a picture of a tree, and the three comparison stimuli are a picture of a mouse, a picture of a cookie, and a duplicate of the tree picture used as the sample stimulus. The learner selects the picture of the tree without specific reinforcement in the past for making the tree-picture-to-tree-picture match. It is also called generalized identity matching.
  2. b Behavior that is selected, maintained, and brought under stimulus control as a function of its consequences: each person's repertoire of operant behavior is a product of his history of interactions with the environment (ontogeny).
  3. c A stimulus in the presence of which a given behavior has not produced reinforcement in the past.
  4. d The environment where instruction occurs; includes all aspects of the environment, planned and unplanned, that may influence the learner's acquisition and generalization of the target behavior.
  5. e An elementary verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by a verbal discriminative stimulus that has point-to-point correspondence, but not formal similarity, between the stimulus and the response product.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. When the occurrence of a single verbal response is a function of more than one variable and what is said has more than one antecedent source of control.
  2. Antecedent stimuli that evoke the same response but do not resemble each other in physical form or share a relational aspect such as bigger or under (e.g. peanuts, cheese, coconut milk, and chicken breasts if they evoke the responses "sources of protein).
  3. An operant that occurs more frequently under some antecedent conditions than under others.
  4. Reinforcement that occurs independent of the social mediation of others (.e.g. scratching an insect bite relieves the itch).
  5. A stimulus change that follows a behavior of interest. Some consequences, especially those that are immediate and relevant to current motivational states, have significant influence on future behavior; others have little effect.

5 True/False questions

  1. conditioned reflexA learned stimulus-response functional relation consisting of an antecedent stimulus (e.g. sound or refrigerator door opening) and the response it elicits (e.g. salivation); each person's repertoire of conditioned reflexes is the product of his or her history of interactions with the environment (ontogeny).


  2. unconditioned motivating operationAn environmental variable that, as a result of a learning history, establishes (or abolished) the reinforcing effectiveness of another stimulus and evokes (or abates) the behavior that has been reinforced by that other stimulus.


  3. escape extinctionA decrease in the frequency of operant behavior presumed to be the result of continued contact with or consumption of a reinforcer that has followed the behavior; also refers to a procedure for reducing the effectiveness of a reinforcer (e.g. presenting a person with copious amounts of a reinforcing stimulus prior to a session).


  4. transcriptionAn elementary verbal operant involving a spoken verbal stimulus that evokes a written, typed, or finger-spelled response. Like the textual, there is point-to-point correspondence between the stimulus and the response product, but no formal similarity.


  5. resistance to extinctionThe relative frequency with which operant behavior is emitted during extinction.


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