5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- rule-governed behavior
- selection by consequence
- divergent multiple control
- unconditioned reinforcer
- a When a single antecedent variable affects the strength of many responses.
- b An elementary verbal operant involving a response that is evoked by a verbal discriminative stimulus that has point-to-point correspondence and formal similarity with the response.
- c Behavior controlled by a rule (i.e. verbal statement of an antecedent-behavior-consequence contingency); enables human behavior (e.g. fastening a seatbelt) to come under the indirect control of temporally remote or improbable but potentially significant consequences (e.g. avoiding injury in an auto accident). Often used in contrast to contingency-shaped behavior, a term used to indicate behavior selected and maintained by controlled, temporally close consequences.
- d A stimulus change that increases the frequency of any behavior that immediately precedes it irrespective of the organism's learning history with the stimulus. Unconditioned reinforcers are the product of the evolutionary development of the species (phylogeny). Also called primary or unlearned reinforcer.
- e The fundamental principle underlying operant conditioning; the basic tenet is that all forms of (operant) behavior, from simple to complex, are selected, shaped, and maintained by their consequence during an individual's lifetime; Skinner's concept of selection by consequences is parallel to Darwin's concept of natural selection of genetic structures in the evolution of the species.
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- A metaphor to describe a rate of responding and its resistance to change following an alteration in reinforcement conditions. The momentum metaphor has also been used to describe the effects produced by the high-probability (high-p) request sequence.
- An alternation in the reinforcing effectiveness of a stimulus, object, or event as a result of a motivating operation. For example, the reinforcing effectiveness of food is altered as a result of food deprivation and food ingestion.
- A stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure in which a neutral stimulus (NS) is presented with an unconditioned stimulus (US) until the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that elicits the conditioned response. Also called classical conditioning or Pavlovian conditioning.
- The extent to which a learner emits the target behavior in a setting or stimulus situation that is different from the instructional setting. Also called situation generalization.
- The history of the natural evolution of a species.
5 True/False Questions
response class → A group of responses of varying topography, all of which produce the same effect on the environment.
positive reinforcer → A stimulus whose termination (or reduction of intensity) functions as a reinforcer.
contrived contingency → The basic unit of analysis in the analysis of operant behavior: encompasses the temporal and possibly dependent relations among an antecedent stimulus, behavior, and consequence.
recovery from punishment procedure → The occurrence of a previously punished type of response without its punishing consequence. This procedure is analogous to the extinction of previously reinforced behavior and has the effect of undoing the effect of punishment.
teaching sufficient examples → The stimulus component of an unconditioned reflex; a stimulus change that elicits respondent behavior without any prior learning.