It's a property that a substance displays without changing its composition; that is, without changing into a different chemical substance.
It's a property that a substance displays by virtue of changing its chemical composition; that is by changing into a new chemical substance or substances.
A solid in which the atoms or molecules are ordered in regular, long-range geometric patterns called crystal lattices. For examples, see Figures 3.5(a) and 3.6 on page 57.
A solid in which the atoms or molecules do not have long-range order (see Figure 3.5(b) on p. 57).
A measure of how much the volume of a substance is decreased in response to an external pressure.
matter whose composition is fixed. This included any substance composed of only one type of atom or molecules
a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler chemical substances because it is composed of only one type of atom. Atoms are the fundamental building blocks of chemical matter, and each element corresponds to a different type of atom.
a substance composed of two or more elements combined in fixed proportions. The proportion of each element is fixed in terms of its mass (relative to the total mass of the compound), as well as in terms of the number of atoms of that element relative to the total number of atoms (of all types) present in the compound.
a blend of two or more pure substances. Unlike in a compound, the relative proportions of the components in a mixture may vary.
a mixture in which the components are mixed as thoroughly as possibly (down to the level of atoms and molecules), such that the composition is the same throughout.
a mixture in which the composition is not uniform throughout.
a change in which matter alters its appearance[shape, size, state, etc.], but not it composition. During a physical change, the identity of the chemical substance(s) present does not change. Physical changes can often be reversed by physical means.
a change in which the substance(s) present change(s) into new chemical substances. The amounts of the reactants decrease as the amounts of products increase.
Law of Conservation of Mass (in chemical reactions)
mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction. In other words, the mass of the products formed by a chemical reaction is equal to that of the reactants used up in the reaction.
the ability to do work.
energy that an object possesses due to its motion.
energy that an object possesses by virtue of its relative position.
energy associated with potential chemical changes.
a chemical or physical change in which energy is released into the surroundings by the chemicals involved. In such a reaction, the (chemical) energy of the product(s) is less than that of the reactants(s). The energy released will cause the temperature of the surroundings to increase.
a change (chemical or physical) in which the chemicals involved absorb energy from the surroundings. The absorption of energy released will cause the temperature of the surroundings to decrease.
energy associated with the flow of electrical charge