An organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world.
the process of using one or more of your senses to gather information.
An observation that deals with a number or amount.
observation that deals with characteristics that cannot be expressed by numbers.
when you explain or interpret the things you observe.
making a forecast of what will happen in the future based on past experience or evidence.
The process of grouping together items that are alike in some way.
the process of creating representations of complex objects or processes.
comparing observations and data to reach a conclusion about them.
A systematic approach to solving problems.
decimal system of measurement based on certain physical standards and scaled on multiples of 10.
International System of Units (SI)
a system of measurement based on multiples of ten and on established measures of mass, length, and time.
the amount of matter in an object.
A measure of the force of gravity on an object.
the amount of space an object takes up.
the amount of matter in a given space.
An approximation of a number based on reasonable assumptions.
a measure of how close a measurement comes to the actual or true value of whatever is measured.
a measure of how close a series of measurements are to one another.
all the digits that can be known precisely in a measurement, plus a last estimated digit.
the percent that a measured value differs from the accepted value.
the average of a set of data.
The middle number in a set of numbers that are listed in order.
The number that occurs most often in a set of data.
the difference between the greatest and least numbers in a set of data.
data that does not fit with the rest of a data set.
A diagram showing the relation between variable quantities, typically of two variables measured along a pair of lines at right angles.
a line graph in which the data points yield a straight line.
a line graph in which the data points do not fall along a straight line.
The ongoing process of discovery in science; the diverse ways in which scientist study the natural world and propose explanations based on evidence they gather.
possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question.
factors that can change in an experiment.
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
a test of the effect of a single variable by changing it while keeping all other variables the same.
evidence; information gathered from observations.
gathering primary data by observing relevant people, actions, and situations.
Research that involves investigators asking people questions using surveys and interviews.
the idea that nothing can ever be known for certain.
the researcher allowing personal beliefs to affect the outcome of a study.
an aspect of an intelligence test in which the wording used in questions may be more familiar to people of one social group than to another group.
a mistake in the design of an experiment that makes a particular result more likely.
the principles of right and wrong that guide an individual in making decisions.
having actual existence or reality; not influenced by emotion or personal prejudice.
influenced by personal feelings; occurring or taking place within the mind; unreal; Ex. subjective sensation of the ghostly presence.
reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case (The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun will rise on Tuesday morning.).
deriving general principles from particular facts or instances ("Every cat I have ever seen has four legs; cats are four-legged animals").
study of living systems and how they interact.
Earth and space science
The study of Earth and its place in the universe.
the study of matter and energy.
a well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations.
a statement that describes what scientists expect to happen every time under a particular set of conditions.
a pattern, plan, representation, or description designed to show the structure or workings of an object, system, or concept.
a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation.
Data that is entered into the computer system via an input or storage device.
A number of steps that one takes in order to do or make something.
the amount produced; product or yield: the daily output of automobiles.
output that changes the system in some way.
any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.
smallest particle of an element.
a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds.
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics.
Made of a single cell.
made of many cells.
an instrument that makes small objects look larger.
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells.
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen.
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches.
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated.
process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells.
a rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell.
A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell.
small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein.
the organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy.
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
a cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another.
stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum.
storage structures for food, water, minerals, waste (think of this as a vacuum).
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy.
cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell.
the regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo.
the period of the cell cycle during which the nucleus is not undergoing division, typically occurring between mitotic or meiotic divisions.
the process by which a cell makes a copy of the DNA in its nucleus.
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next.
the stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei and one copy of the dna is distributed into each daughter cell.
The final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the two new cells.
a cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell.
The organelle that contains the DNA and controls the processes of the cell.
a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended.
a group of similar cells that perform the same function.
A body tissue that contracts or shortens, making body parts move.
tissue that receives messages from the body's external and internal environment, analyzes the data, and directs the response.
tissue that covers the surface of the body and lines internal organs.
group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions.
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function.
the inner framework made up of all the bones of the body.
A muscle that is attached to the bones of the skeleton and provides the force that moves the bones.
A place in the body where two bones come together.
a substance in food that provides energy or helps form body tissues and that is necessary for life and growth.
The process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of your digestive system into your blood.
an organ of the body that secretes one or more hormones.
a change in an organism's surroundings that causes the organism to react.
an action or change in behavior that occurs as a result of a stimulus.
a chemical that serves as a messenger. Each hormone is secreted by a gland and travels to one or more target organs, where it brings about responses.
the maintenance of a stable internal environment.
the reaction of the body and mind to everyday challenges and demands.
26 small bones that make up your backbone.
strong connective tissue that holds bones together in movable joints.
Hard, dense bone tissue that is beneath the outer membrane of a bone.
Layer of bone tissue having many small spaces and found just inside the layer of compact bone.
soft fatty tissue that fills most bone cavities and is the source of blood cells.
a connective tissue that is more flexible than bone and that protects the ends of bones and keeps them from rubbing together.
a condition in which the body's bones become weak and break easily.
a muscle that is not under conscious control.
A muscle that is under conscious control.
involuntary muscle found inside many internal organs of the body.
muscle attached to the skeleton, making movement possible.
Striated, involuntary muscle found only in the heart.
strong connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone.
The outer layer of the skin.
The middle layer of the skin.
a pigment that gives the skin its color.
an opening through which sweat reaches the surface of the skin.
a structure in the dermis of the skin from which a strand of hair grows.
amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius.
protein that speeds up a chemical reaction.
a muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach.
wavelike contraction of the walls of the intestines, which propels contents onward.
tiny, finger-like structures that protrude from the wall of the intestine.
heart, blood vessels, blood.
a hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body.
upper chamber of the heart that receives and holds blood that is about to enter the ventricle.
lower chamber of the heart that pumps blood out of the heart.
a flap of tissue that prevents blood from flowing backward.
a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart.
the largest artery in the body.
a tiny blood vessel where substances are exchanged between the blood and the body cells.
a blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart.
specialized protein that carries oxygen on red blood cells.
throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx.
windpipe; tube through which air moves.
hairlike projections that beat debris that collects in the lower airway upward.
The passages that branch from the trachea and direct air into the lungs.
two spongy organs, located in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage, responsible for respiration.
tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood.
Large, flat muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity that helps with breathing.
voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords.
folds of connective tissue that produce your voice.
the process by which wastes are removed from the body.
waste product formed in the liver, filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, and excreted in urine.
fluid wastes removed from the body by the kidneys.
either of two bean-shaped excretory organs that filter wastes (especially urea) from the blood and excrete them and water in urine.
tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
saclike organ in which urine is stored before being excreted.
tube that carries urine from the bladder and releases it from the body; in males, tube through which semen is released from the body.
the functional unit of the kidney.
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
message that travels from the dendrites of a neuron to the axon.
one or more bundles of neurons that connect the brain and the spinal cord with other parts of the body.
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.
central nervous system
The portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
peripheral nervous system
The section of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord.
involuntary response to a stimulus.
A pipe that allows something to flow through.
cell affected by a particular hormone.
a neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion.
The center of control of the endocrine system that secretes a large number of hormones.
a mechanism of response in which a stimulus initiates reactions that reduce the stimulus.
process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell.
Female sex cell.
Male sex cell.
a fertilized egg.
The male gonads, which produce sperm and secrete male sex hormones.
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
external sac that contains the testes.
thick fluid containing sperm and other secretions from the male reproductive system.
the male organ that transfers sperm to a female and that carries urine out of the body.
a structure containing egg cells.
female sex hormone.
one of two fluid-filled tubes in human females through which an egg passes after its release from an ovary.
organ of the female reproductive system in which a fertilized egg can develop.
in the human female reproductive system, a canal that leads from the uterus to the outside of the body.
cycle during which an egg develops and is released from an ovary and the uterus is prepared to receive a fertilized egg.
phase of the menstrual cycle during which the lining of the uterus, along with blood and the unfertilized egg, is discharged through the vagina.
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
a fluid-filled sac that cushions and protects a developing embryo and fetus in the uterus.
a membrane that becomes the link between the developing embryo or fetus and the mother.
the process of releasing a mature ovum into the Fallopian tube each month.
a cord or funicle connecting the embryo or fetus with the placenta of the mother and transporting nourishment from the mother and wastes from the fetus.
set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes.
The process of change that occurs during an organism's life to produce a more complex organism.
a reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent.
a reproductive process that involves two parents that combine their genetic material to produce a new organism, which differs from both parents.
the mistaken idea that living things arise from nonliving sources.
an organism that makes its own food.
an organism that cannot make its own food.
the process of grouping things based on their similarities.
the scientific study of how living things are classified.
Naming an organism with its genus and species name.
Group of closely related species, and the first part of the scientific name in binomial nomenclature.
a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring.
unicellular organisms whose cells lack a nucleus.
organism whose cells contain nuclei.
process of change over time.
branching tree diagram
a diagram that shows probable evolutionary relationships among organisms and order in which specific characteristics may have evolved.
shared derived characteristic
trait that the common ancestor of a group had, and passed on to its descendants.
process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments.