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Mr. Satinoff Tuesday, January 10th test. A + WON!!!

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

Acronym for DNA stands for?

Deoxyribose

What is the sugar that makes up the backbone called?

Thymine, Cytosine, Adenine and Guanine

What are the 4 nitrogen containing bases of DNA?

Cytosine and Thymine

Which of the bases are single ringed pyrimidines?

Adenine and Guanine

Which of the bases are double ringed purines?

Guanine

What base matches with cytosine in DNA?

Thymine

Which base matches with adenine in DNA?

Double Helix

What is the shape of DNA?

Weak Hydrogen Bonds

What bonds hold the nitrogen containing base pairs together in the center of the molecule of DNA?

Covalent Bonds

What type of bond holds the nitrogen containing bases to the sugar/phosphate backbone of the DNA molecule?

Replication

The process of copying or making new DNA is called?

Helicases

What enzyme breaks the bonds in the center of DNA to unzip the molecule or separate the chains of DNA?

Replication Fork

The point at which the 2 chains of DNA separate

DNA polymerase

Moves along the 2 separated chains, new chains are assembled complimentary to the existing chain.

Nucleotide

Consists of a sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen containing base pair.

mutation

A change in a nucleotide sequence

ribonucleic acid

The acronym RNA stands for

ribose

The sugar in RNA

-ose

Sugar ending

uracil

Instead of thymine, an RNA molecule contains this base

uracil

What does adenine match with in RNA?

cytosine

What does guanine match with in RNA?

messenger RNA

mRNA stands for

Single strand 1/2 ladder

The structure of mRNA is what shape?

mRNA Function

Carries genetic information from DNA to ribosome

Transfer RNA

tRNA stands for?

Clover T-shape

tRNA structure?

tRNA function

Writes the code from mRNA and ensembles amino acids into polypeptide chain proteins

Ribosomal RNA

rRNA stands for?

Globular

rRNA structure?

rRNA function

rRNA + Protein = Ribosome

Transcription

Process of making a strand of mRNA from DNA is called?

Ribosome

Where does translation occur?

Nucleus

Where does transcription occur?

Translation

The process of assembling polypeptides from mRNA (making proteins) is called?

Ribosomes

What is composed of rRNA and proteins, they are free in the cytosol and attached to the rear.

Nuclear Pore

When the mRNA leaves the nucleus to go to the ribosome, from where does it leave?

AUG

Start codon that engages the ribosome to being translation

UAA, UAG and UGA

Stop codons that cause the ribosome to stop translation

Codon

Each combination of 3 nucleotides is called a?

Amino Acid

Each codon codes for a specific what?

Divide by 3 = 5

If a chain of bases is 15 nucleotides in length how many amino acids could be produced?

Protein

Amino acids form a polypeptide chain also known as a what?

-ase

Enzyme ending

Replication, Transcription, Translation

Protein synthesis order? (Alpha)

8 carbons

How many carbons in a purine?

6 carbons

How many carbons in a pyrimidine?

Purine

What is double carbon?

Pyrimidine

What is single carbon?

Peptide Bonds

Holds amino acids together to make proteins

Polymerase

Enzyme that zips hydrogen bonds

Replication

What occurs in the nucleus ONLY!!!?

Protein

What is 60% of a humans dry weight?

1 amino acid

Every 3 bases=?

9

3 amino acids = how many base pairs?

100%

Percent of bases must equal?

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