Science Olympiad-Anantomy-Skeletal

35 terms by xXxFried-CheesecakexXx 

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Osteogenic cells

undergo the process of mitosis and form osteoblasts

Osteoblasts

form bone matrix by secreting collagen; no mitosis

Osteocytes

Mature cells, develop from osteoblasts, control day-to-day activities (each occupies a lacuna, a pocket sandwiched between layers of matrix

Osteoclasts

remodeling: when blood calcium level is low, these cells break down bone to release calcium and phosphorous

Bone Lining Cells

made from osteoblasts along the surface of most bones in adults, regulates the movement of calcium and phosphate into and out of the bone

Hematopoiesis

the formation of blood cells in the living body (especially in the bone marrow)

Hyaline Cartilage

most common, tips of bones at joints, soft part of the nose, supporting rings of the trachea. Prominent in early development

Elastic Cartilage

matrix packed with elastic fibers, making it more flexible. found in external ear and epiglottis of larynx

Fibrocartilage

few lacunae and chondrocytes. matrix packed with collagen fibers. found in the intervertebral disks, knee menisci and pubic symphisys

Periosteum

Tough, tight-fitting membrane that coves a bone's surface and contains blood vessels that transport nutrients into the bone

Lacunae

means "little lake," small pockets situated between lamellae containing osteocytes of compact bone.

Haversian Canal

longitudinal canal carrying blood vessels and nerves

Osteon

basic functional unit of the bone

Spongy Bone

Type of bone that is light and has pores found near joints

Endosteum

vascular membrane that lines the inner surface of long bones

lamellae

concentric, ring-linke arrangement of bone tissue

Perforating Canal

connect central canals and hold blood vessels and nerves

Compact Bone

tightly solid, strong bone tissue resistant to bending

Diaphysis

the main section of a long bone

Epiphysis

the end of a long bone

Medullary Cavity

cavity within the shaft of the long bones filled with bone marrow

Articular Cartilage

thin hyaline cartilage layer that covers epiphyses of bones in synovial joints

Canaliculi

small canals radiating in all directions from launae, allowing for communication between osteocytes

Epiphyseal Plate

cartilage plate between epiphysis and diaphysis and allows growth to occur

Trabeculae

sponge like apperance of the cancellous bone

Cancellous Bone

bone connecting trabeculae; also known as spongy bone

Metaphysis

the growing part of a long bone between the diaphysis and the epiphysis

Spinal Stenosis

Narrowing of the neural canal or nerve root canals in the lumbar spine.

Achondroplasia

an inherited skeletal disorder beginning before birth

Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis

a form of rheumatoid arthritis that affects children

Ankylosing spondylitis

a form of arthritis thats effects the spine and adjaciant structures

Osteosarcoma

malignant bone tumor

Osteoporosis

abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium

Disc Herniation

rupture of the soft tissue that separates two vertebral bones into the spinal canal

Scoliosis

an abnormal lateral curve to the vertebral column

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