NLN study guide

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223 terms · anatomy & physiology terms on the new NLN test

plasma membrane

membrane made up of a double layer of phospholipids and cholesterol and also has proteins embedded. proteins may extend thru entire membrane or only protrude one side. some may also have attached sugar groups. it serves as a barrier and transports substances in and out of cell. externally facing proteins act as receptors

mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production; metabolites are broken down and oxidized and used to attach phosphates to ADP molecules and make ATP

rough ER

sugar groups attached to proteins in cisternae; proteins boud to vesicles for transport to the Golgi apparatus and other sites; external face synthesizes phospholipids

smooth ER

site of lipid and steroid synthesis, lipid metabolism, and drug detox

Golgi apparatus

packages, modifies, and segregates proteins from the cell, inclusion in lysosomes and incorporated into the plasma membrane

peroxisomes

enzymes detox a number of toxic substances; most important catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide

micortubules

support cell and give it shape; involved in intracelular and cellular movememnts, form centrioles and flagella

microfilaments

involved in muscle contraction and other types of intracellular movements, help form cell cytoskeleton

intermediate filaments

stable cytoskeletal elements, resist mechanical forces acting on cell

centrioles

storage for nutrients, wastes, and cell products

nuclear envelope

separates nucleoplasm from the cytoplasm and regulates passage of substances to and from nucleus

chromatin

granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins

simple diffusion

kinetic energy; net movement of all molecules from one are of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration along concentration gradient

facilitated diffusion

kinetic energy; same as simple diffusion but the diffusing substance is attached to a lipid soluble membrane carrier protein or moves thru a membrane channel

osmosis

kinetic energy; simple diffusion of water thru a selectively permeable membrane

primary-active transport

transport of substances against a concentration gradient; preformed across plasma membrane by a solute pump directly using ATP hydrolysis

secondary-active transport

co-transport of 2 solutes across membrane; energy is supplied indirectly by ion gradient created by primary active transport; symporters move transported substances in the same direction; antiporters move transported substances across the membrane

pinocytosis

plasma membrane sinks beneath an external fluid droplet containing small solutes; membrane edges fuse, forming a fluid filled vesicle

phagocytosis

"cell eating" an external particle is surrounded by a "seizing foot" and becomes enclosed in a vesicle

exocytosis

secretion or ejection of substances from a cell; substance is enclosed in a membranous vesicle which fuses with the plasma membrane and ruptures, releasing substances to exterior

sodium-potassium pump

uses an enzyme call Na+-K+ATPase; regulate the Na and K that are inside and outside the cell; needed for excitability of cells; works continuously; releases Na out of the cell and takes in K; need ATP

channels

intramebranous proteins that transport substances like ions and water thru the plasma membrane

cell-life cycle

series of changes a celll goes thru from the time it is formed until it reproduces

interphase

the period of the cell cycle during which the nucleus is not undergoing division, typically occurring between mitotic or meiotic divisions

mitosis

process by which the nucleus and duplicated chromosomes of a cell divide and are evenly distributed, forming two daughter nuclei

cytokinesis

division of the cytoplasm during cell division

RNA

single stranded; can leave the cell; part of protein syntheis by forming chains of amino acids

amino acids

consists of codons of mRNA in chains that form proteins

glycolipid

lipids with attached sugar group found outside plasma membrane; make up the end of Glycocalyx

primary germ layers

make up four primary tissues

ectoderm

forms the nervous tissue

mesoderm

forms the muscle and connective tissue

endoderm

forms epithelium

stratum basale

deepest epidermal layer; attached to the dermis layer, also called stratum germintivum; highly mitotic; single row of stem cells

stratum spinosum

several layers of cells thick, prickly cells

stratum granulosum

3-5 cells thick, process of keratinization is beginning; keratohyaline granules in cells help produce keratin in upper layers and lamellated granules contain water resistant glycolipid

stratum lucidum

thin translucent layer found in thick skin like palms and heels; 2-3 cells thick of flat clear keratinocytes

stratum corneum

outermost layer of skin; 20-30 cells thick; provides a durable outercoat of body that protects inner cells

dermis

strong, flexible connective tissue; papillary layer is areolar connective tissue; reticular layer is coarse irregular dense fibrous connective tissue

hair

produced by a hair follicle consists of heavily keratinized cells; has a central medulla, cortex, and outer cuticle, root and shaft portions

nails

scale-like modifications of skin; nail matrix is constantly growing

rule of nines

divides body into 11 areas each counting for 9% of the body to calculate how much of the body has been burned

first degree burns

results in redness, swelling, and pain; tends to heal in 2-3 days without special attention; only affects epidermis

second degree burns

affects epidermis and top half of dermis; results in blisters; skin regeneration occurs with little to no scarring in 3-4 weeks

third degree burns

full thickness burns; appears grey-white; cherry red or blackened; initally little to edema; since nerve endings have been destroyed there is no pain; skin grafts usually needed

rotation

the turning of a bone on its own axis

flexion

reduces the angle of the joint

extension

increases the angle of the joint

abduction

to move away from middle line of body

adduction

to move towards middle line of body

circumduction

movement of a body part so that it outlines a cone in space

supination

turning backward

pronation

turning forward

dorsiflexion

pointing outwards

plantar flexion

flexion of wrist or ankle

inversion

foot turns medially

eversion

sole facing laterally

protraction

jutting out of jaw

retraction

pulling jaw back

depression

moving elevated body part inferiorly

opposition

touching thumbs to tips of fingers of same hand

plane joints

allow only short axial gliding movements

pivot joint

uniaxial rotation of one bone across its own axis

condyloid joint

allows flexion and dorsiflexion, adduction and abduction and circumduction

saddle joints

found in fingers

muscle contraction

calcium ions released after a nerve signal and binds with troponin and triggers tropomyosin to shift, exposing the actin filaments active sites. myosin binds with available sites of actin forming cross-bridges. myosin heads release ADP and used phosphate from ATP used as energy and moves toward midpoint sarcomere, pulling actin with it (power-stroke) Z discs pulled together and H zones get smaller, sarcomeres shorten

fetal blood flow thru heart valves

placenta delivers oxygen rich blood to the veins leading to the heart and throughout the fetal body; arteries carry oxygen low blood out of the body to the placenta

diastole

period of cardiac cycle when either artia or ventricles are resting

systole

period of cardiac cycle when either atria or ventricles are contracting

purkinje fibers

modified ventricular muscle fibers of the conduction system of the heart

SA node

specialized myocardial cells in the wall of the right atrium; pacemaker of the heart

AV node

specialized mass of conducting cells located at the atrioventricular junction of the heart

bundle of his

bundle of specialized fibers that conduct impulses from the AV node to the right and left ventricles; also called atrioventricular bundle

P wave

atrial depolarization

QRS

ventricular depolarization and atrial re-polarization

ST interval

entire ventricles are depolarized

T wave

ventricular re-polarization begins

neutrophils

phagocytize bacteria

platelets

fragments of megakaryocytes; needed in coagulation of blood

eosinophils

kill parasitic worms; complex role in allergy and asthma

basophils

release histamine and other mediators of inflammation; contain herapin, an anticoagulant

lymphocytes

mount immune response by direct cell attack or via antibodies

monocytes

phagocytosis; develop into macrophages in the tissues

erythropoietin

EPO; hormone released from the kidneys to stimulate RBC production

albumin

60% of plasma proteins; produced by liver; main contributor to osmotic pressure

globulins

30% of plasma proteins; alpha and beta- bind to ions, lipids, and fat soluble vitamins; gamma- antibodies released by plasma cells during immune response

fibrinogen

4% of plasma proteins; produced by liver, forms threads of blood clots

coagulation

phase 1- prothrombin activator formed; phase 2- prothrombin activator converts prothrombin into thrombin (enzyme); phase 3- thrombin catalyzes fibrinogen molecules into a fibrin mesh that traps blood cells and effectively seals the hole until blood vessel is repaired

blood pressure maintenance

depends on cardiac output, peripheral resistance, and blood volume, vasomotor center regulates cardiac output and blood vessel diameter; baroreceptors detect changes in blood vessel diameter

physiological response to exercise

increases respiratory pump, activity of muscular pump, and sympathetic venoconstriction- increases venous return- increases end diastolic volume- increases stroke volume- increases cardiac output

hyperventilation

an increased depth and rate of breathing greater than demanded by the body needs

hypoventilation

Reduction in the volume of air that enters the lung for gas exchange; oxygen exchange insufficient to meet metabolic demands of the body

PCO2

if levels rise the CO2 accumulates in the brain and results in carbonic acid dissociation; the H+ that are released stimulate the chemoreceptors in the brain stem and increase the depth and rate of breath

control of respiration

nerves in the medulla and pons, medulla contains rhythm generating and integrative center; pons smooths out transitions between inspiration and expiration

blood pH

if CO2 levels are high then the pH of the blood drops; if the CO2 levels are low then the pH rises

PO2

O2 sensors that cause the respiratory centers to increase ventilation; significant drops in PO2 needed to increase ventilation

salivary glands

parotid, submandibular, sublingual; secretes saliva (salivary amylase, water, electrolytes, mucin, metabolic wastes)

stomach

different layers of muscle used to digest food; rugae helps grind up food; gastrin released to increase HCl secretion; histamine released to activate parietal cells to release HCl; serotonin released to contract stomach muscles; somatostatin released to inhibit gastric secretions of all products; vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) released to inhibit acid secretion; pepsin used to digest proteins

gallbladder

thin-walled muscular sac on the ventral surface of the liver; stores and concentrates bile by absorbing its water and ions; releases bile via the cystic duct that flows into the bile duct

bile

yellow-green solution containing bile salts, bilirubin, cholesterol, fats, phospholipids, and electrolytes

pancreas

under stomach, spleen connected to it; pancreatic islets secrete insulin and glucagon; acini secrete pancreatic juice; zymogen contain digestive enzymes; pancreatic juice neutralizes chyme and has electrolytes, amylase, lipases, nucleases, proteases

CCK (cholecystokinin)

potentiates secretin's actions on organs; also involved in anxiety, pain, memory; inhibits appetite

enzymes that digest proteins

pepsin (stomach); trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase (pancreatic proteases); aminopeptidases, carboxypeptidases, dipeptidases (brush border enzymes)

enzymes that digest nucleic acids

pancreatic ribonucleases and deoxyribonuclease

liver

lobed accessory organ that overlies the stomach; produces bile to help digest fats and serves other metabolic and regulatory functions

hypothalamus

region of the diencephalon forming the floor of the third ventricle of the brain

posterior pituitary gland

hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract; oxytocin and ADH

anterior pituitary gland

hypophyseal portal system; GH, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, PRL

growth hormone-GH

produced by somatrophs in the anterior pituitary; stimulates liver, skeletal muscle, bone and carilage to produce insulin-like growth factors, but targets bone and skeletal muscle

thyroid-stimulating hormone-TSH

produced in anterior pituitary; stimulates normal development and secretory activity of the thyroid

andernocorticotropic hormone- ACTH

produced by anterior pituitary; stimulates adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids

follicle-stimulating hormone-FSH

produced by anterior pituitary; stimulates gamete production

luteinizing hormone-LH

produced by anterior pituitary; promotes production of gonadal hormones

prolactin-PRL

produced by anterior pituitary; stimulates milk production

oxytocin

stored in posterior pituitary; stimulates contractions during childbirth and also triggers milk ejection in women producing milk, plays role in sexual arousal and orgasms

antidiuretic hormone-ADH

stored in posterior pituitary; also known as vasopressin; responds to changes in solute concentration in the blood

thyroid hormone-TH

2 related compounds T4 (thyroxine) and T3 (triiodothyronine); produced by thyroid gland; major metabolic hormone; maintains BP, regulates tissue growth, develops skeletal and nervous system, reproductive capabilities

calcitonin

produced in C cells of thyroid gland; inhibits osteoclast activity and release of Ca2+ from bone; stimulates Ca2+ uptake and incorporation into bone matrix

parathyroid hormone-PTH

released by parathyroid gland; stimulates osteoclasts to digest bone matrix; enhances reabsorption of Ca2+ and secretion of phosphate by the kidneys; promotes activation of vitamin D

aldosterone

mineralocorticoid released by the adrenal cortex; stimulates Na+ reabsorption and water retention by the kidneys

cortisol

glucocorticoid released by adrenal cortex; keeps blood sugar levels relatively constant; maintains BP by increasing action of vasoconstrictors; causes gluconeogenesis; promotes rise in blood glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids

androgens (estrogen and testosterone)

gonadocorticoids released by adrenal cortex; contributes to onset of puberty, appearance of sex characteristics, and sex drive

epinephrine and norepinephrine

secreted by adrenal medulla; cause blood glucose levels to rise, blood vessels to constrict, heart to beat faster, blood to be diverted to the brain, heart, and skeletal muscle; epinephrine stimulates metabolic activities, bronchial dilation, and blood flow to skeletal muscles

melatonin

derived from serotonin and released from pineal gland; affects timing of sexual maturation and puberty, day/night cycles, physiological processes that show rhythmic variations

glucagon

released from pancreas; major target is liver; promotes glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and release of glucose to the blood

insulin

released by pancreas; lowers blood glucose levels; enhances glucose transport into fat and muscle cells; part of neural development, learning and memory; inhibits glycogeolysis and gluconeogenesis; increases cellular respiration; glycogenesis; converts glucose to fat

progesterone

maturation of female organs, appearance of female secondary sex characteristics, and breast development and cyclic changes in uterus mucosa

atrial natriuretic peptide-ANP

released by heart; reduces BP, BV, and Na+ concentration in blood 176. Erythropoietin- released by kidneys; signals production of RBCs

renin

released by kidneys; initiates renin-angiotensin mechanism

cholecalciferol

released by skin; precursor to vitamin D

lepton

released by adipose tissue; involved in appetite control and stimulates increased energy expenditure

thymus

releases thymulin, thymopoietins, and thymosins; all involved in normal development of T lymphocytes in immune response

osteocalcin

released by osteoblasts; produces pancreatic beta cells to divide and secrete more insulin, improving glucose handling and reducing body fat

kidney

removes toxins, metabolic wastes, and excess ions from the blood; regulated blood volume, chemical composition and pH; gluconeogenesis

mechanism of urine formation

1. glomerular filtration; 2. tubular reabsorption (returns all glucose, amino acids, 99% of water, salt and other components to the blood; 3. tubular secretion (reverse of reabsorption, selective addition to urine

nephron

structural and functional unit of kidney; consists of glomerulus and renal tubule

urine

95% water, 5% solutes, Na+, K+, PO4(3-), SO4(2-), Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3-, urea, uric acid, and creatinine

hormonal regulation of male repo. function

GnRH stimulates FSH and LH; FSH stimulates release of androgen-binding protein (ABP) which makes spermatogenic cell receptive to testosterone, LH stimulates release of testosterone which triggers spermatogenesis

hormonal regulation of female repo. function

GnRH stimulates FSH and LH which trigger growth of several follicles and estrogen release, estrogen inhibits LH and FSH; sudden LH surge at day 14 which triggers ovulation and transforms ruptured follicle into corpus luteum which forms inhibin, progesterone, and estrogen; inhibits LH and FSH release, ends luteal activity and inhibits follicle development; days 26-28 corpus luteum degenerates and ovarian hormone levels drop sharply

menstration

days 1-5 menstrual phase: ovarian hormones are at lowest, gonadotropins beginning to rise, stratum functionalis is shed and menstrual flow occurs; days 6-14 proliferative phase: estrogen levels prompt generation of new functional layer, increases synthesis of progesterone receptors in the endothelium, glands enlarge and spiral arteries increase in #; days 15-28 secretory phase: endothelium prepares for implantation of embryo, progesterone causes spiral arteries to form functional layer

conception

the developing of offspring

implantation

completed by the 12th day after ovulation; after conception, cell divides after 36 hours, by 72 hours 16 or more cells, at day 3 or 4 forms a blastocyst that floats for 2-3 days, implantation begins 6-7 days after ovulation and is complete by the 12th day

stages of labor

dilation stage: 6-12 hours, longest part of labor, initial weak contractions, cervix opens 10cm, amnion ruptures and releases amniotic fluid; expulsion stage: strong contractions every 2-3 minutes about 1 min long, urge to push increases, crowning occurs, delivery of infant; placental stage: strong contractions continue and cause detachment of placenta and compression of uterine blood vessels, delivery of afterbirth occurs about 30 min after birth, all placental fragments must be removed to prevent postpartum bleeding

central nervous system- CNS

brain and spinal cord; integrating and command center of the nervous system; interprets sensory input and dictates motor responses based on reflexes, current conditions, and past experiences

peripheral nervous system-PNS

the part of the nervous system outside of the CNS; mainly consists of the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord; 2 main divisions: sensory and motor

spinal nerves

carry impulses to and from the spinal cord

cranial nerves

carry impulses to and from the brain

sensory division

part of the PNS; afferent; consists of nerve fibers that convey impulses to the CNS from sensory receptors throughout the body

motor division

part of the CNS; efferent; transmits impulses from the CNS to effector organs (muscles and glands); has to major parts: somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system

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