Client centered therapy
A humanistic therapy based on Carl Roger's beliefs that an individual has an unlimited capacity for psychological growth and will continue to grow unless barriers are placed in the way.
A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
A coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses.
A device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea.
All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
A psychological perspective that analyzes how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information.
Cognitive behavior therapy
a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior).
Cognitive dissonance theory
The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent.
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment.
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history
Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object.
The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
Complementary and alternative medicine
Unproven health care treatments not taught widely in medical schools, not used in hospitals, and not usually reimbursed by insurance companies
The mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
Concrete operational stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (ages 6 or 7-11) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as secondary reinforcer.
Conditioned response (CR)
In classical conditioing the learned response to a preveiously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS).
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response.
Conduction hearing loss
Hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea.
Retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. They detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
A tendency to search for information that confirms one's perception.
A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
Our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
The principle that properties such as mass, volume and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.
The extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest.
Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.
The condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
A binocular cue for perceiving depth; the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object. The greater the inward strain, the closer the object.
Alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods.
Coronary heart disease
The clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries.
The large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and this of how well either factor predicts the other.
A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.
a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning. Includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning.
The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.
The behavior that a test is designed to predict.
An optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.
Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
A study in which people of different ages are compared with one another.
One's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
The eerie sense that "I've experienced this before". Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
The large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep.
False beliefs, often of persecution of grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
The bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
Drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
The ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance.
A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.
rare and controversial dissociative disorder in which an individual experiences two or more distinct and alternating personalities.
The minimum difference between 2 stimuli required for detection 50% of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference.
In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
Unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or it's members.
psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
A split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others.
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about wether the research participants have received the treatment or the placebo.
A condition or retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one's genetic makeup.
A sequence of images, emotions, and thought passing through a sleeping persons mind.
The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a widley used system for classifying psychological disorders.
The presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact.
A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy.
A synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition.
A biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.
Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
The largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
In Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view.
An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweet across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
The developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.
A response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors (3) conscious experience.
Emotion focused coping
Attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to ones stress reaction
The ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.
Empirically derived test
A test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups.
the view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment.
The processing of information into the memory system.
The body's "slow" chemical communication system; set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
Natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure. (Natures morphine)
A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
A sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males.
A psychological perspective that analyzes how the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one's genes.
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one of more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process.
The condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare".
behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid
External locus of control
The perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate.
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
Extrasensory perception (ESP)
The controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input. Said to include telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition.
A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment.
A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test.
False consensus effect
The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
therapy that treats the family as a system. views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication
A condition in which far away objects are seen more clearly than near objects is focused behind the retina.
Feel-good, do-good phenomenon
People's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking.
The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
The organization of the visual field into objects that stand out from their surroundings.
according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved
The inability to see a problem from a new perspective.
Fixed interval schedule
In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
Fixed ratio schedule
In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
A completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills.
One's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood.
fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging)
A technique for revealing blood blow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. Shows brain function.
The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
Formal operational stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.
The central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster.
The way an issue is posed.
In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
The number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time.
In hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense it's pitch.
The portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments
The principle that frustration-the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger, which can generate aggression.