Unit 6 - Physical Properties of Matter Study Guide

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Physical Property

Characteristics of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substance. Examples:size, shape, taste, texture, color, mass weight volume, density, physical state conductor, insulator, magnetic, sinks, floats, dissolves in water.

Classify

To put into groups; Matter can be classified by using physical properties. Matter can also be classified by how it is used (it's function)

Matter

Anything that has mass and and takes up space; makes up all things in the world; the physical properties of matter determine how it is classified, changed, and used. (Matter occurs in 3 states Solid, Liquids, and Gas)

Mass

The amount of matter in an object. Moving an object from one location to another does not change it's mass. Measured with a balance in grams or kilograms

Weight

Measure of the pull of gravity on an object; Weight changes with the force of gravity. Measured with a spring scale Newtons.

Volume

The amount of space an object or liquid takes up

Water Displacement

The process of measuring the volume of a solid object by submerging it in water and measuring the amount the water rises by subtracting the orginial volume of water from the volume of water after the object is submerged.

Density

Describes how much matter is packed into a given amount of space; It compares mass to volume. Solids are more dense than liquids and liquids are more dense than gases. If mass is greater than volume it will sink in the water; If mass is less than volume, it will float in water. An object placed in water will sink if it is denser than water; an object will float if it is less dense than water.

Conduct

To transfer energy

Conductor

A substance that transfers energy easily; (Metals and water are good conductors)

Insulator

A material that allows little or no electricity or thermal energy (heat) to flow through it (Plastic, Wood, Glass, Rubber, and Cotton are good insulators)

Physical State

Form of matter (solid, liquid, or gas) depends on the object of energy; when an object gets energy, its particales move faster and they spread apart from each other.

States of Matter

Forms of matter (solid, liquids, gas) States of matter may change when heat is added or reduced.

Solid

The state of matter that has a definite shape and a definite volume; Particles in a solid move very little (low energy) nearly staying in place because the particles are packed tightly together.

Liquid

The state of matter that has definite volume but no definite shape; Particles in a liquid are more spread out than a solid and move faster than in a solid and flow around each other (medium energy) A liquid takes the shape of its container.

Gas

The state of matter that has no definite shape or volume; Particles in a gas move quickly and spread far apart (high energy). Gas spreads out to fill its container. Example: Water Vapor, Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide

Boiling Point

The temperature at which a substance begins to turn from a liquid into gas (100C is the boiling point of pure water) Water becomes water vapor at 100 C

Melting Point

The temperature at which a substance turns from a solid to liquid (The melting point of frozen water occurs when the temperature increases from 0 C)

Freezing Point

The temperature at which as substance begins to change state from liquid to solid (0 C is the freezing point of pure water)

Repel

To push away

Attract

To pull towards itself

Thermal Energy

Heat Energy

Evaporation

When liquid water becomes a gas such as water vapor.

Magnetism

The properties of attraction possessed by magnets

Boil

To change a liquid to a gas

Melt

To become a liquid by warmth or heat

Condense

To change from a gas (air) to a liquid (water) by taking away heat

Mixtures

A combination of two or more substances that can be easiliy be seperated by physical means:(salad, sand and water, salt and pepper)

Solution

a special mixture in which one substance dissolves in another. They are difficult to seperate because the process often requires more time and effort.(lemonade, chocolate milk, sal water)

Dissolve

to mix completely with another substance to form a solution. It looks like it disappears.

Soluble

capable of being dissolved.

Solubility

How well a substance dissolves into a liquid. Sugar and sal are soluble in water, but sand is not.

Solute

the substance that is dissolving.

Solvent

The liquid in which a substance dissolves.

Key Concepts; Physical Properties

Objects can be can be classified by their physical properties such as magnetic or nonmagnetic, insulator or conductor of electricity.

Key Concepts; Physical Properties

A physical Property is something that can be observed or measured.

Key Concepts; Physical Properties

Mass is the amount of matter in an object. It can be discovered using a balance scale and in usually measured in grams.

Key Concepts; Physical Properties

Iron is a metal that is attracted to a magnet.

Key Concepts; Physical Properties

Materials such as cotton, plastic, rubber, aluminum, and cooper are not attracted to a magnet.

Key Concepts; Physical Properties

A magnet has a north and south pole. Opposite poles will attracted to eachother while like poles will repel

Key Concepts; Physical Properties

Solid object have a definite volume and shape. The molecules ar tightly packed and cannot move freely(only vibrate)

Key Concepts; Physical Properties

Liquids have a definite volume but no definite shape.

Key Concepts; Physical Properties`

The molecules flow over eachother and take the shape of their container.

Key Concepts; Physical Properties

Gasses have NO definite shape and NO definite volume. The molecules are spread out and collide as they move. Gasses spread out to fill their container.

Key Concepts; Physical Properties

Objects that float are LESS dense than water.

Key Concepts; Physical Properties

Object that sink are MORE dense than water.

Key Concepts; Physical Properties

Substances such as sugar and water are soluble in water: this means they will dissolve when they are added to water.

Key Concepts; Physical Properties

Substances such aspepper and sand are NOT soluble in water: this means they wil NOT dissolve when they are added to water.

Key Concepts; Physical Properties

A conductor is a substance that allows heat or electricity to pass through it. An example of a conductor is metal.

Key Concepts; Physical Properties

A insulator is a substance that does NOT allow heat or electricity to pass through it. Examples of insulators include cotton, styrafoam, rubber, plastic and wood.

Boiling and Freezing Points

The freezing point of water is 0 degrees celsius.

Boiling and Freezing Points

The freezing point of water is 0 degrees celsius.

Boiling and Freezing Points

The boiling point of water is 100 degrees celsius.

Boiling and Freezing Points

Freezing is achieved when eough heat is added to cause a phase change from liquid to solid.

Boiling and Freezing Points

Melting is achieved when enough heat is added to cause a phase change from solid to liquid.

Boiling and Freezing Points

Boiling is achieved when enough heat is added to cause a phase change from liquid to gas.

Some Mixtures Keep The Physical of Their Ingredients

A mixture is two or more substances that are combined.

Some Mixtures Keep The Physical of Their Ingredients

Mixtures can be created using solids, liquids and/or gasses.

Some Mixtures Keep The Physical of Their Ingredients

The items is a mixture are not even distributed.

Some Mixtures Keep The Physical of Their Ingredients

The objects within a mixture can often be seperated based on their physical properties. For example objects that are attracted to a magnet(iron) can be seperated usinga magnet.

Some Mixtures Keep The Physical of Their Ingredients

Materials, such as sand, can be sperated from a mixture based on the physical property of particle size. Strainers can seperate small particles from larger particles.

Physical Properties of the Ingredients of Solutions Can Change

A solution is a special type of mixture in which the ingrediants are spread evenly throughout.

Physical Properties of the Ingredients of Solutions Can Change

Solutions are often created when a soluble solid(salt,sugar) is dissolved into water.

Physical Properties of the Ingredients of Solutions Can Change

When a soluble object is dissolved, the physical properties of that ingredient will be different. Ex: different size, different shape

Changes in Stateson Matter

Cooling is the removing of heat

Changes in Stateson Matter

When enough heat is added to a SOLID, it will undergo a physical change and turn into a LIQUID

Changes in Stateson Matter

The process of a SOLID turning into a LIQUID is called melting.

Changes in Stateson Matter

When enough heat is added to a LIQUID, it will undergo a physical change and turn into a GAS

Changes in Stateson Matter

The process of a LIQUID turning into a GAS is called evaporating or boiling.

Changes in Stateson Matter

Heat always travels to where there is less heat.

Changes in Stateson Matter

When enough heat is removed from a gas, it will undergo a physical change and turn into LIQUID.

Changes in Stateson Matter

The process of a GAS changing into a LIQUID in called condensation.

Changes in Stateson Matter

When enough heat is removed from a LIQUID, it will undergo a physical change and turn into a SOLID.

Changes in Stateson Matter

The process of a LIQUID changing to a SOLID is called freezing.

Changes in Stateson Matter

A stop watch can be used to measure the time it takes in order for the these changes to occur.

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